The overlays that highlight 17th century London features are approximate and derived from Wenceslaus Hollar’s maps:
Open location in Google Maps: 51.589322, 4.774491
Breda is a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. The name Breda derived from brede Aa ('wide Aa') and refers to the confluence of the rivers Mark and Aa. As a fortified city, the city was of strategic military and political significance. Although a direct Fiefdom of the Holy Roman Emperor, the city obtained a municipal charter; the acquisition of Breda, through marriage, by the house of Nassau ensured that Breda would be at the center of political and social life in the Low Countries.
The acquisition of the city by the House of Orange-Nassau marked its emergence as a residenzstadt (residence city). The presence of the Orange-Nassau family attracted other nobles, who built palatial residences in the old quarters of the city.
In 1581, during the Eighty Years' War Breda was captured by surprise by Spanish troops. After a ten-month siege in 1624–25, the city surrendered to the Spaniards under Spinola; the event was immortalized by Diego Velázquez. In 1637 Breda was recaptured by Frederick Henry of Orange after a four-month siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to the Dutch Republic by the Treaty of Westphalia.
The exiled Stuart pretender Charles II of England resided in Breda during most of his exile during the Cromwellian Commonwealth and Protectorate, thanks to the proximity of Charles's sister Mary, Princess Royal, the widow of Prince William II of Orange.
Based mostly on suggestions by Parliamentarian General George Monck, Charles II's Declaration of Breda (1660) made known the conditions of his acceptance of the crown of England which he was to accept/resume later in the same year.
The Treaty of Breda was signed in the city, July 31, 1667, bringing to an end the Second Anglo-Dutch War in which the Dutch faced the same Charles II who had been their guest. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breda
Charles II's brief stay in Breda in May 1660 put considerable strain on the city -- he had retainers and servants, then came the exiles, and the visiting international Ambassadors and gentry, all eager to join in the party:
"The Estates General resolved the same day that the King's charges should be defrayed during the whole time he stayed in the United Provinces; and ordained likewise that provision should be made for it; but at first they met with so many difficulties that it was absolutely impossible to execute this resolution.
"For the Town of Breda being already starved almost, because of the great number of persons of quality which came there every day, and the hot season permitting not provisions to be brought there from other places, there was nobody would undertake to treat the King; and those that would have undertaken it could not have accomplished it; so that the Estate would have had the displeasure to see their substance dissipated, at the expense of its reputation."
Charles and co. therefore moved around, visiting relatives.
But that was very generous of the Estates General -- will Charles remember it later?
from A RELATION IN FORM of JOURNAL, OF THE VOYAGE And RESIDENCE Which The most EXCELLENT and most MIGHTY PRINCE CHARLES THE II KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, &c.
Hath made in Holland, from the 25 of May, to the 2 of June, 1660.
Rendered into English out of the Original French, By Sir WILLIAM LOWER, Knight. [Edited by SDS into modern English. Apologies for any errors.] Page 12.
The Castle of Breda and its relationship to the river -- oh, no, that's the moat -- are the opening picture in this article.
Plus there is a slide show of interiors and family members of the early Nassau family.
The city of Breda has a deep connection to the Dutch Royal Family because of the marriage of the 11-year-old heiress, Johanna van Polanen (1382 - 1445), the only child of John III, Lord of Polanen and the Lord of Breda (1340 – 1394), and 23-year-old Engelbert I, Count of Nassau (1370 - 1442). They were the great-great-grandparents of William I "The Silent", Prince of Orange (1533-1584) and thus ancestors of the Dutch Royal Family.
The Stedelijk Museum in Breda now has a permanent exhibition about the Nassaus of Breda. As a visitor, you travel through three centuries of struggles, intrigue, love, marriage and loss. [I.E. probably until the birth of William III, Prince of Orange,]
Upon entry, you are greeted by a model of the Castle of Breda. The castle still exists and can be visited occasionally with a tour, but it is now in use by the Dutch Military Academy.
The exhibition holds some impressive items, such as Johanna and Engelbert’s Joyeus Entry charter,
Cimburga of Baden’s (Johanna’s granddaughter-in-law) manuscript,
an altar which includes St. Elisabeth of Hungary,
and a portrait of Barbara of Nassau, an illegitimate daughter of Engelbert II, Count of Nassau and thus Johanna’s great-granddaughter.
Moniek Bloks, the author of this review, was impressed with the exhibition. She says there was no annoying audio guide, a logical walking route, plenty of information in Dutch and English, and some extras for children which did not take away from the exhibition.
The Stedelijk Museum of Breda is within walking distance of the station. Plan your visit here: https://www.stedelijkmuseumbreda.…
Excerpted from https://www.historyofroyalwomen.c…
This 21st century map shows the islands that protect the entrance to the port of Amsterdam, which includes Vlieland, Texel and are collectively known as the West Frisian Islands. Move the map south, and you can see how the tiny country of the Netherlands is interconnected.
Draw a mental line between Rotterdam and Antwerp, and Breda is slightly east at the center, within the Dutch Republic in the Stuart brothers' exile days.
Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.