Tuesday 22 May 1666

Up betimes and to my business of entering some Tangier payments in my book in order, and then to the office, where very busy all the morning. At noon home to dinner, Balty being gone back to sea and his wife dining with us, whom afterward my wife carried home. I after dinner to the office, and anon out on several occasions, among others to Lovett’s, and there staid by him and her and saw them (in their poor conditioned manner) lay on their varnish, which however pleased me mightily to see.

Thence home to my business writing letters, and so at night home to supper and to bed.

8 Annotations

First Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"in their poor conditioned manner"

A shabby shop? The varnish trade is not as tidy as the prick-louse trade.

A. Hamilton  •  Link

which however pleased me mightily to see

I wonder, is Sam the sponge of knowledge about all manner of technique speaking here or Sam the admirer of "a very beautiful woman" as he described Mrs. Lovett on first meeting her?

cgs  •  Link

Both, Sam enjoys the pursuit of knowledge, and who does not enjoy and succor seeing beauty in any form.

cgs  •  Link

A shabby shop, color here there, drip here, there and everywhere, then there be the most enjoyable purfumed aire.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Must have been quite overwhelming in a close little shop.

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Thence home to my business writing letters, and so at night home to supper and to bed."

Pepys makes it seem like nothing else is happening in the world:

To bring you up-to-date, in 1662 we left Marshal Mainhardt, Comte de Schomberg on his way to lead the defending Portuguese army against the Spanish, with Louis XIV secretly paying for him and some English and other foreign troops he would lead as, by Treaty, Louis was forbidden to fight the King of Spain. http://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/1…

The following is excerpted from
Protestant Exiles from France
Book 2. Chapter 1.

Schomberg finally could leave Lisbon with ease, his friend Fremont d’Ablancourt (a clandestine envoy from the French court), being in constant and friendly communication with the Portuguese ministry.

The Portuguese town of Evora surrendered to the Spanish general, Don John of Austria, so the Portuguese army with its English auxiliaries under the direction of Schomberg marched to stop his progress, and cut off his supplies.

Don John had no choice but to attack, which he did near Evora, and was repulsed.
The Portuguese chased the Spanish, and caught up with them near Estremos.

Don John's troops occupied 2 steep hills, on which he planted cannon and the greater part of his infantry. His baggage was placed in the rear, and the cavalry was drawn up in 4 bodies on the plain below.
The fight dragged on, until the English auxiliaries climbed up the steep hills, using their hands and feet; many were slain, but the greater part gained the summits. This inspired 3 regiments of Portuguese infantry to ascend by an easier and more circuitous path.
The Spanish foot were surprised by this unexpected boldness. They fled, despite Don John, alighting from his charger, urging them to rally and face the enemy.
Now the Portuguese horse, which had been successful against the Spanish cavalry, advancing to help their foot, and a great slaughter ensued.

The victorious cavalry were chiefly Schomberg’s veterans. The victory was complete, Evora was restored, and 1663’s campaign was ended.

The nominal Portuguese commander-in-chief, the Count de Villa-Flor, having thwarted Schomberg on all occasions, was now removed.
Schomberg was promoted to be the Military Governor. He was also made a Grandee of Portugal, and was given the title of Count of Mertola. These honors were not only rewards for his services, but also heraldic qualifications for high military command.

In 1664, the Spanish army was again commanded by Don John, but could do little more than watch while Schomberg entered Spanish territories and took Valencia d’Alcantara.

The campaign ended in the defeat of the Duke of Ossuna, an amateur general of the Spaniards, near Castel-Rodrigo.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


In 1665, the Marquis of Caracena took over commanding the Spaniards, and marched upon Villa-Viciosa, the estate of the Dukes of Braganza, within which was the palace of Braganza.
Caracena took the town, and was besieging the fortified castle that towered above it, when Schomberg and the Portuguese army were sighted in the distance.

The two armies met on the plain of Montesclaros. This time the Portuguese had advantage in numbers.
The Spanish charged first, and the Italian auxiliary cavalry under the command of Alexander Farnese, Prince of Parma, broke the first line of the Portuguese.

Marshal Schomberg advanced to rally his troops.
Parma was watching his movements, and engaged with him in personal combat, by striking him on the breast two blows with his sabre, which nearly threw him from the saddle, and would have slain him, had not the Prince’s sword been shattered at the second stroke on the cuirass which Schomberg wore under his uniform.”
Cuirass = a piece of armor consisting of breastplate and backplate fastened together.

The Portuguese won the day, and surrounded the retreating enemy.

The Spanish artillery and the troops left outside the Castle of Villa Viciosa fled to Badajoz.
The Portuguese made an irruption into Andalusia, and carried off immense booty.
Irruption = a sudden and violent invasion

The decisive battle of Montesclaros completed the Spanish misfortunes.
It fixed the crown on the head of the King of Portugal, and raised the country's reputation on the scale of European nations.
For this victory, as well as their previous successes, the Portuguese were chiefly indebted to the military skill of Gen. Schomberg and the valor of the foreign auxiliaries.

The defeat possibly hastened the death of Philip IV of Spain on 17 Sept., 1665, in his 61st year and 45th of his reign.

At the end of 1665, the idiotic and violent Alphonso VI of Portugal declared himself of age, and his mother, Queen Regent Louisa, having surrendered the government into his hands, died in a convent on 18 Feb., 1666.

[The arrival of Amb. Edward Montagu, Earl of Sandwich in Madrid to replace Amb. Richard Fanshawe is annotated tomorrow, 23 May, 1666. https://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


From here on, there are SPOILERS]

Overtures for peace between Spain and Portugal began immediately after the victory of Montesclaros. During diplomatic delays, Schomberg continued to fight, and carried all before him in 1666 and 1667.

At last peace was settled on 12 Feb., 1668.
Schomberg also participated in the settlement of the government at Lisbon. Alphonso VI’s imbecility and wild behavior were sufficient to lay him aside, and put the sceptre into the hand of his brother, Pedro.

Alphonso VI’s favorite minister tried to restore Alphonso's influence by marrying him to Mary, Princess of Nemours.
The young queen soon obtained an annulment of this marriage from the Pope, having first formed a party at court, which Schomberg joined.
Alphonso VI was also forsaken by his premier, Count Melhor; and the regal power, although only with the title of regent, was transferred to his brother Pedro, under whose rule peace was proclaimed.

Gen. Frederic Armand Mainhardt, Comte de Schomberg left Portugal on 1 June, 1668.

Schomberg's frend, D’Ablancourt, preserves some anecdotes about his time in Portugal:
The jealousy and insubordination of the Portuguese officers often resulted in their disregard of Schomberg’s orders. One night he directed Gen. Denis De Mellos to detach 6 squadrons of horse to a certain point.
The next day Schomberg quickly saw his order had not been obeyed. Gen. Mellos replied that he had sent 30 cavaliers with a guide, having thought that sufficient. “Sufficient?” exclaimed Schomberg, “yes, sufficient to cut off your head, for you had your orders in writing.”

Gen. Schomberg’s name became a proverb in Portugal and in Spain. The Spanish Guards, raised soon after his departure, were called The Schombergs.
The peasants started dressing images of the saints in “embroidered coats, long periwigs, and French points.” Finally the priests forbade anyone from adorning the saints 'à la Schomberguoise.'

On 14 June, 1668, Schomberg arrived at La Rochelle. A famous wit was there to compliment him. The Count was more troubled at this praise than he ever was at the sight of the Spanish battalions. He replied that he had only been as instrumental as he could to the glory of his Prince. [LOUIS XIV]

Marshal Schomberg was home in his adopted France.
One son, Otho, had died.
Another son, Henry, died at Brussels of wounds received in battle; but we do not know when.
His wife had died, again we do not know when.
His 3 remaining sons stayed in Portugal, namely Frederic, Mainhardt, and Charles.

In 2006 our own Pedro made 3 annotations about this phase of the war from another source, see https://www.pepysdiary.com/encycl…

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