Sunday 23 August 1663

(Lord’s day). Up and to church without my wife, she being all dirty, as my house is. God forgive me, I looked about to see if I could spy Pembleton, but I could not, which did please me not a little. Home to dinner, and then to walk up and down in my house with my wife, discoursing of our family matters, and I hope, after all my troubles of mind and jealousy, we shall live happily still. To church again, and so home to my wife; and with her read “Iter Boreale,” a poem, made just at the King’s coming home; but I never read it before, and now like it pretty well, but not so as it was cried up. So to supper. No pleasure or discourse with Ashwell, with whom for her neglect and unconcernment to do any thing in this time of dirt and trouble in the house, but gadding abroad as she has been all this afternoon, I know not whither. After supper to prayers and to bed, having been, by a sudden letter coming to me from Mr. Coventry, been with Sir W. Pen, to discourse with him about sending 500 soldiers into Ireland. I doubt matters do not go very right there.

40 Annotations

First Reading

Martin  •  Link

So, Sam, you could pick up a broom yourself...

Michael Robinson  •  Link

“Iter Boreale”

My edition of Wheatley has the following as a footnote:

"Robert Wild,a Nonconformist divine, published a poem in 1660 upon Monk's march from Scotland to London, called "Iter Boreale." It is written in a harsh and barbarous style, filled with clenches and ear-wickets, as the time called them, which having been in the fashion in the reigns of James I and his unfortunate son, were revived after the Restoration (Scott's "Dryden" vol xv., p. 296). Wood {Anthony Wood, Athenae Oxonienses, 1691/2, mfr} mentions three other works of the same title, by Eades, Corbett and Martin, it having been a favorite subject at that time."

Wild’s “Iter Boreale” (1660) seems to have been not only popular but also the object of a public controversy. Though later an outspoken nonconformist Wild at the time was expressing Royalist sympathies. Wild himself, “HT a Gentleman of Quality”, and “A Rural Pen” all published continuations or appendices in 1660; un noted by Pepys, though a short walk away from the Navy Office, the following sermon had been preached:-

CALAMY, Edmund, B.D., Minister of St. Mary's, Aldermanbury., Eli trembling for fear of the Ark. A sermon, preached at St. Mary Aldermanbury, Dec. 28. 1662: by E. Calamy, B.D. late Minister there: upon the preaching of which he was committed prisoner to ... Newgate ... Together with the Mittimus and manner of his imprisonment, annexed hereunto. [London? 1663]

to which Wild replied with:-

WILD, Robert, D.D. Anti-Boreale. An answer to that seditious and lewd piece of poëtry, upon Master Calamy's late confinement, supposedly his who wrote Iter Boreale [R. Wild]. (A Discourse occasioned by Mr. Calamies late sermon, intituled Eli trembling for fear of the Ark.-Mr. Crofton's position examined, and an imposed liturgy justified.). [London? 1663.]

Editions of Iter, with other of Wild’s ,works were being published as late as 1680.

Patricia  •  Link

I thought Ashwell was long gone, but she keeps reappearing.

A. Hamilton  •  Link

Iter Boreale (Northern Journey?)
There were many editions. Here's one from 1660.…

Iter Boreale.

Attempting somthing upon the Successful and
Matchless March of the Lord General
George Monck,
The Last Winter, &c.

Veni, Vidi, Vici.

By a Rural Pen.

Printed on St GEORGE'S Day, for George Thomason,
at the Rose and Crown in St Pauls Churchyard, 1660.

A. Hamilton  •  Link

Iter etc

Introductory material to the text at the link posted in my previous annotation:

Robert Wild's Iter Boreale was easily the most successful and popular poetic response to the events leading up to the Restoration; as John Dryden's Eugenius puts it in Essay of Dramatick Poesie (1668) in an almost certain reference to Wild, "When his famous Poem came out in the year 1660, I have seen them reading it in the midst of Change-time; nay so vehement they were at it, that they lost their bargain by the Candles ends" (Dryden, Works 17: 12). In genre, the poem is probably best characterized as a "history" poem, but its tone is dominated by its passages of violent and facetious satire attacking the Rump and the leaders of the army faction, and by its panegyric of Monck. Wild himself was a Nonconformist, but a fervent Royalist, and friend of John Cleveland (by whose satirical style Wild seems to have been influenced). His political allegiances notwithstanding, however, Wild was ejected from his living, as were thousands of others, for his presbyterian beliefs on St. Bartholomew's Day1662. His stubborn adherence to presbyterianism, and, perhaps, his gently ironic (and very controversial) poetic defence of another ejected minister, Edmund Calamy, in 1662 almost certainly explains the otherwise inexplicable omission of this immensely popular poem from the 1662 Rump.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Iter Boreale

Thanks A. Hamilton for your cite of a modern edition; far preferable to my own post lunch spatchcock.

TerryF  •  Link

"Iter Boreale "

"The classical model for such poetry is Horace, Sermo I.v, [… ] the account of a journey to Brundisium as a member of Maecenas’ retinue....[T]he general dramatic situation of a poet accompanying a Great Man on a journey is obviously similar and he provides much the same sorts of notes: about other members of the company, sights seen along the way, traveler’s hardships, exceptionally good or bad food and lodging, and so forth. In writing this he was no doubt catering to his audience’s curiosity about their national geography."

[This from the Introduction to the hypertext version of the satire by Richard Eedes *Iter Boreale* (1583) in Latin, explanatory notes, an English intro, translation and references:… ]

JWB  •  Link

"...500 soldiers into Ireland."

Abstracts of early Aug. letters to & from Ormond by Edward Edwards,Bodleian Library, University of Oxford:

1)"E[dward] Bagot to Ormond:
By "holding intelligence" with a soldier of the old Army [i.e. the English rebel army, employed in Ireland], the writer has learned that there is a plot, amongst those old soldiers, against the Lord Lieutenant's life. ... Some of these men have told the writer's "intelligencer" that, when their blow shall be "struck in Ireland, there [is] a party in England, ready to second them". ...
2)"Intelligence [concerning the proceedings of some political conspirators in Ireland]

Date: 4 August 1663
[Addressed to the Duke of Ormond.]
Intelligence [concerning the proceedings of some political conspirators in Ireland; and of the alarm of the native Irish, who "fly their houses, and are marching in hundreds and thousands, with their cows and baggage, to the mountains, in the night"
3)"J[ohn] T[homson] to William Jackson
Document type: Original [intercepted]

Further accounts of the searches for, and proceedings against, persons accused of complicity in the late plots; and of the state and affairs of nonconformists, & other malcontents, in Ireland.
4)"George Clapham to [the Bishop of Kildare?] [this is conjectural only]
Date: 14 August 1663
Reports various particulars relating to the meetings and political agitation of the Nonconformists, and others, suspected of disaffection to the Government.
Public assemblies are held in this town, and in Rosenallis; and no notice of them is taken by the Magistrates."

Carte Calendar Vol37, Aug-Oct 1663…

Robert Gertz  •  Link

Hmmn...Gee, Sam. I might be more worried that Pembleton wasn't at church if Bess stayed home.

"Oh, Mr. Pembleton. I can't dance now, Sam'l is at church. And I'm soooo dirty." Long stare.

"Then it's a most opportune time...We shan't be interrupting Mr. Pepys at his work. As for the other, lets call it "dirty dancing", Mrs. Pepys." Broad smile.

Hmmn...Catchy, she nods, turning to lead him...

AHHH! Ashwell standing grimly in the hallway like an avenging angel...

"By the Lord's Mass, girl? What the devil are you still doing here?" Bess fumes.

"My duty, ma'am."

Oh, Lord. Not her again, like in Brampton all summer, Pembleton sighs.

"Duty? What 'duty'? Now you listen here, girl..." Bess glares.

"You and Mr. Pepys still owe me ten shillings, ma'am."

"Oh. Well. Let me..."

"That'll be fifty shillings now." Ashwell smiles, nodding to Pembleton.

(Now she's thinking...Ashwell waves at a smoldering Bess...The girl could really put me through Hell.

And he's thinking...Glance to Pembleton...She probably could name the Brampton dell.

Now she's thinking...Back to Bess...I wonder if she'd dare. And he's thinking...There's blackmail in the air. So he says. "Ummn, perhaps I should be..."

And she says. "Oh, fine fifty shillings! Here! Now be off with you!"

And it's been a long...Been a long day...Yes, it's been a long...Been a long...Been a long...Been a long day.

Ashwell out the door, whistling contentedly.

Reading Chapter 40 of her copy of Audley's "Way to Grow Rich"

"Finding that Perfect Time to Hit Your Employer for a Raise or Bonus He/She Daren't Refuse...")

chris  •  Link

Yesterday Sam paid ninepence for a gypsy "fortune". How seriously would he have taken such a thing? Am I anachronistic to think of him as a tolerant sceptic paying his pennies out of charity?

Xjy  •  Link

The fortune-teller's ninepence
Sam was probably terrified of the curse she might put on him if he offended her.

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"No pleasure or discourse with Ashwell, with whom for her neglect and unconcernment to do any thing in this time of dirt and trouble in the house, but gadding abroad as she has been all this afternoon, I know not whither."

In this time of trouble (and dirt) Father Pepys expects every servant to do her Duty (no matter how badly treated or rudely sacked).

C'mon Sam...She has to get a new job for one thing. And Bess is probably on her back every moment she's in the house.

"Just look at this dirt, Mrs. Pepys."
Sam notes to Bess as they walk through the house.

"Yes, Mr. Pepys. Truly awful." Bess sighs. "Something must be done."

"Indeed, Mrs. Pepys. Matters must be set right."

"Pity our rise in station forbids us to take implements in hand as we did at Axe Yard. I imagine in those days we could've set this place to rights nicely."

"A pity, Mr. Pepys. Perhaps...Given the emergency?" Bess eyes broom in kitchen corner.

"Mrs. Pepys! You must not forget yourself...And our position. Affecting as it does, my position, it is essential to maintain our dignity."

"I suppose so..." Bess sighs. "But Lady Batten has been seen..."

"Indeed." Sam nods. "And when we are Lord and Lady Pepys, we may once again occasionally indulge such whimsy as feeding hogs, taking a broom in hand, and the like. It will be seen as the amusing eccentricity and/or desire to show proper humility it is. But currently, my dear...Dignity is the thing we must stand on. No matter how..." he steps in unemptied chamber pot. " pains us."

Robert Gertz  •  Link

"So Pepys came to me with this letter from Coventry, ordering the sending of 500 soldiers into Ireland over the little rumpus there..." Penn notes to a visiting Sir Will Batten.

"To you?"

"My Irish campaign experience..." Penn waved a hand. "So after I teased him that I was an admiral in the Navy, not an army commander, I told him he'd misread the letter."


"Yes...I told him it said he was to lead the 500 men into Ireland. You'd never seen such shock and paling of face. Thought the little fellow would die on the very spot."

"Even better than the time he thought he saw a ghost?"

"Believe me..."

A. Hamilton  •  Link

London, 1663

"...Ireland. I doubt matters do not go very right there."

Belfast 2005

On July 28, 2005, the Provisional IRA Army Council announced an end to its armed campaign, stating that it would work to achieve its aims using "purely political and democratic programmes through exclusively peaceful means" and that "IRA Volunteers must not engage in any other activities whatsoever".

A. Hamilton  •  Link

Amended annotation

London, 1663

"...Ireland. I doubt matters do not go very right there."

A familiar theme for 400 years or more. Is it now a thing of the past?

Belfast 2005
On July 28, 2005, the Provisional IRA Army Council announced an end to its armed campaign, stating that it would work to achieve its aims using "purely political and democratic programmes through exclusively peaceful means" and that "IRA Volunteers must not engage in any other activities whatsoever".

language hat  •  Link

The fortune-teller’s ninepence

Neither charity nor fear. If you're going to consult someone who charges for their services, you pay them. I don't think much of chiropractic, but when I was persuaded to see a chiropractor some years ago, I paid the fee even though I didn't think he did me any good. I doubt any of you refused to pay for college courses you didn't learn anything from.

And his skepticism is pretty clear from the way he talked about it.

celtcahill  •  Link

Pay for services - absolutely - she was unlikely to have been alone in any case, and payment the choice of wisdom and as entertaining as a play without violating his oaths.

Sam is quite the skeptic in these matters, as seen in previous entries and more coming.

JWB  •  Link

gadding about

How much of the meaning of this phrase derives from the old Germanic word for spear-point or goad and/or from the Biblical tribe of Gad? Seredipitous reinforcement?

JWB  •  Link

That's Serendipitous,(or Ceylonitous or Sri Lankatous or whatever)

TerryF  •  Link

"gadding abroad" or about

gad (v.)
"to rove about," 1460, perhaps a back-formation of O.E. gædeling "wandering," or associated with gad (n.) "a goad for driving cattle" (see gadfly). Gadabout (n.) is 1837, from earlier noun gadder about (1568).…

TerryF  •  Link

gadfly (n.)
1626, "fly which bites cattle," probably from gad "goad, metal rod" (c.1225), here in the sense of "stinger," from O.N. gaddr "spike, nail," from P.Gmc. *gadaz "pointed stick;" but sense is entangled with gad (v.) and an early meaning of gadfly was also "someone who likes to go about, often stopping here and there." Sense of "one who irritates another" is from 1649 (equivalent of L. oestrus).…

A.  •  Link

(now etymologize that!)

Aqua  •  Link

Gad has 6 noun variations, 2 verbs and 3 V/a ppl versions. Sam has used the word before and it got into OED.
Egad is from the pronunciation of usuing the "a" sound vs "O" so that one would not be accused of being a heretic.
Gad otherwise be a tool made of steel,a tool, from its Baltic friends.
'gadget' be the name of a tool that a person could not name properly or remember, like thingmegig.
Gadding around was to use thy tool indiscreetly

Aqua  •  Link

Sam usage:and for want was forced to give me a shilling, and how he still cries “Gad!” and talks of Popery coming in,…
The house was full of citizens, and so the less pleasant, but that I was willing to make an end of my gaddings, and to set to my business for all the year again tomorrow…

Robert Gertz  •  Link

And to go completely off topic, Sam would certainly appreciate Dimitri Shostakovich's score for the film "The Gadfly" particularly the lovely "Romance" later used as the theme for the "Riley:Ace of Spies" television miniseries.

dirk  •  Link

Also off topic -- but interesting, as it might have interested Sam, with his scientific mind.

The Discovery of a World in the Moone.
or, A Discovrse Tending to Prove
"that 'tis probable there
may be another habitable
World in that Planet."
by John Wilkins (1614-1672), publ. 1638
The Propositions that are proved in this Discourse.

Proposition 1.
That the strangenesse of this opinion is no sufficient reason why it should be rejected, because other certaine truths have beene formerly esteemed ridiculous, and great absurdities entertayned by common consent.

Prop. 2.
That a plurality of worlds doth not contradict any principle of
reason or faith.


Prop. 7.
That those spots and brighter parts which by our sight may be
distinguished in the Moone, doe shew the difference betwixt the
Sea and Land in that other world.

Prop. 8.
That the spots represent the Sea, and the brighter parts the Land.

Prop. 9.
That there are high Mountaines, deepe vallies, and spacious plaines in the body of the Moone.

Prop. 10.
That there is an Atmo-sphæra, or an orbe of grosse vaporous aire,
immediately encompassing the body of the Moone.


Prop. 13.
That tis probable there may be inhabitants in this other World, but of what kinde they are is uncertaine.
Available as from today on:…

Michael Robinson  •  Link

John Wilkins (1614 - 1672)

Pepys may certainly have come accross him; he was at St Lawrence Jewry from 1662 and mush involved with the early Royal Society. He and Samuel Moreland, Pepys tutor a Magdaline, shared an interest in cryptography -- Wilkins wrote the first English text on the subject "Mercury, or The Secret and Swift Messenger" (1641).

Borges in his essy on Wilkins makes reference to the Chinese Encyclopedia "The Heavenly Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge" .... In its distant pages it is written that animals are divided into (a) those that belong to the emperor; (b) embalmed ones; (c) those that are trained; (d) suckling pigs; (e) mermaids; (f) fabulous ones; (g) stray dogs; (h) those that are included in this classification; (i) those that tremble as if they were mad; (j) innumerable ones; (k) those drawn with a very fine camel's-hair brush; (l) etcetera; (m) those that have just broken the flower vase; (n) those that at a distance resemble flies.

Similar perhaps to our own project?

Michael Robinson  •  Link

John Wilkins' Analytical Language

pp.229 - 232 @ p. 231 in "Selected Non-Fictions Jorge Luis Borges," (Eliot Weinberger ed.) NY: Viking, 1999

andy  •  Link

A familiar theme

my shaky knowledge of English history is summed up by that 1950s classic "1066 and all that", sometimes referred to authoritatively as (Sellers and Yeatman, 1954). As I recall it said that Gladstone came very near, several times, to solving the Irish qusetion , but whenever he got near to it, they changed it.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

The Heavenly Emporium

In the page on Wilkins, Background Info discloses that Pepys heard Wilkins preach at the Temple:-…

Australian Susan  •  Link

Sellers and Yeatman
On this period they comment that the Cavaliers were Wrong but Romantic and the Roundheads were Right but Repulsive.

dirk  •  Link

Long time no see --- the Rev. Josselin's diary today:

"God good in manifold outward mercies, in the season, a dry cool harvest, and I preached two harvest sermons, god delight in me and mine for good."

Pedro  •  Link

Lady Fanshawe's Memoirs (Departure from Lisbon)...

On the 23rd of August 1663, we, accompanied by many persons of all sorts, went on board the King of England's frigate, called the Reserve, commanded by Captain Holmes, where, as soon as I was on board, the Conde de Castel Melhor sent me a very great and noble present, a part of which was the finest case of waters that ever I saw, being made of Brazil wood, garnished with silver, the bottles of crystal, garnished with the same, and filled with rich amber-water.

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

“but gadding abroad as she has been all this afternoon”

To GAD, to ramble, rove, range, or straggle about.
---An universal etymological English dictionary. N. Bailey, 1724.

Louise Hudson  •  Link

"Up and to church without my wife, she being all dirty, as my house is."

Interesting that Sam isn't "all dirty, as my house is" but Liz is. Aren't they living in the same house?

Terry Foreman  •  Link

"Up and to church without my wife, she being all dirty, as my house is."

She (says) she has nothing presentable to wear?

Chris Squire UK  •  Link

re: ‘ . . gadding abroad as she has been all this afternoon, I know not whither.’

‘gad, v.2 < Of obscure origin . .
1. a. intr. To go from one place to another, to wander; esp. to wander about with no serious object, stopping here and there, to rove idly. Also to gad about, abroad, out.
. . 1605 W. Camden Remaines ii. 39 He was alwayes gadding vp and downe the world, and had little rest.
1710 A. Philips Pastorals i. 52 She gads where-e'er her roving Fancy leads . . ‘

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