Paul Brewster • Link
Samuel Morland, son of the Rev. Thomas Morland, of Sulhamstead Banister, near Reading, Berks, was born about 1625. He was educated at Winchester School, whence he removed to Magdalene College, Cambridge; admitted to a scholarship, July 18th, 1645; to a quinquennial fellowship, November 30th, 1649; and to a foundation fellowship, September 24th 1651. One of the fellows who signed Pepys's admission entry, October 1st, 1650. He became afterwards one of Turloe's under-secretaries, and was employed in several embassies, particularly to the Vaudois, by Cromwell, whose interests he betrayed, by secretly communicating with Charles II. He published in 1658, in a folio volume, his "History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piemont [sic?]" He was knighted at Breda, and afterwards created a baronet. He was an ingenious mechanic, and made some improvements in the steam engine. At the Restoration he as made Master of Mechanics to Charles II, who presented him with a medal as an "honourable badge of his signal loyalty." He subsequently received a pension of L400 but sold it for ready money. He died December 30th 1695 and was buried in Hammersmith church on the 6th of the following January. His MSS are at Cambridge, in the Public Library"
vincent • Link
S.Morland also played with a Calculating machine that I believe can be seen at the Science Museum London
vincent • Link
In 1656 Morland became Clerk of the Signet, with a salary of
Paul Brewster • Link
"Now Montagu gets the Position"
I think we can pretty well say that Montagu didn't get S Morland's position as Clerk of the Signet. The original annotation was probably based on Montagu's own memory slip as recorded in the diary (May 4 1660 and June 6 1660). I can't say for sure who got the position since the online reference of office holders runs out with S. Morland (1656-?)
Emilio • Link
In addition to signing off on Pepys's admission to Cambridge, Morland was also his tutor at Magdalene College according to Tomalin: "The college register for 21 October 1653 reads, in the hand of [Sam's] tutor Samuel Morland, 'Peapys and Hind were solemnly admonished by myself and Mr. Hill for having been scandalously overserved with drink the night before. This was done in the presence of the Fellows then resident, in Mr. Hill's Chamber'" (37).
That's our Sam . . .
Emilio • Link
The hapless Morland
In fact, he had an ongoing relationship with Pepys, and the contrast between their two careers in interesting. On the one hand Our Sam, living a life of unglamorous attention to detail and carefully managed rewards; on the other the anti-Sam, with much flash and glamour but a constant struggle for money. The L&M Companion entry is long and really brings Morland to life:
"Mathematician, inventor, and Pepys's tutor at Magdalene, where he was a Fellow from 1649-54. He left Cambridge for the public service and held a post under Secretary Thurloe. By the summer of 1659 he was passing information to the royalists abroad. His reward at the Restoration was a knighthood, a baronetcy, a pension and a place in the Privy Chamber. But nothing went right with him: he passed the rest of his life 'in a state of perpetual and clamorous impecuniosity' (Bryant). He sold his English pension; for a while after 1668 he acquired a French one. He lived in the '60s in Pall Mall; moved to Bloomsbury, later to Vauxhall, and by 1687 was living in what he called a 'hut' by Hyde Park gate. He produced inventions by the dozen, but could not invent a means of staying solvent. The most interesting of his inventions, technically, was his calculating machine. The most important, politically, was a device for opening and resealing letters--much used by the Post Office until the instruments were destroyed, with the Post Office building, in the Fire. He pressed on Pepys and the Admiralty several varieties of water pump, each better than the last, and a design for naval gun carriages. For his own delight he contrived indoor fountains, a portable cooking stove and a mechanical glyster with which he could administer an enema to himself without getting out of bed [!]. To pay his debts he fell back in 1687 on the oldest contrivance of all: he married, as he thought, an heiress--but she turned out to be an adventuress who was scheming to saddle him with her debts and her bastard. He managed to get rid of her after a few years by divorce, since she had set herself up as the mistress of Sir Gilbert Gerard, feeling cheated of her expectations. He told the whole tragic-comedy in a series of letters to Pepys, in the hope that his old pupil would be able, through his influence with the Chancellor and the King, to expedite the legal proceedings."
Here's a portrait of him--and no wonder he has bags under his eyes:
Augusto Buonafalce • Link
Morland also wrote a manual featuring several cryptographic methods including a cipher device used to perform an autokey. See Cryptologia article Sir Samuel Morland's Machina Cyclologica Cryptographica, Volume XXVIII, 3, July 2004.
Augusto Buonafalce • Link
Other references to Morland in the Diary:
1662 May 29th
1663 Aug 13th
1664 May 16th
1667 Sep 4th
1669 Mar 14th
SIR SAMUEL MORLAND'S MACHINA CYCLOLOGICA CRYPTOGRAPHICA
Cryptologia, Jul 2004 by Buonafalce, Augusto
ABSTRACT: A 17th century treatise featuring several cryptographic methods includes a cipher device used to perform an autokey. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3926/is...
Pedro • Link
From Emilio’s post above…
“The most important, politically, was a device for opening and resealing letters—much used by the Post Office until the instruments were destroyed, with the Post Office building, in the Fire.”
A summary from Intelligence and Espionage in the Reign of Charles II by Alan Marshall…
“In 1664 Morland went to see Arlington who told him that there was a method in Spain of sealing letters which were impossible to open without being discovered. He saw this as a challenge and undertook to examine a letter written by Arlington sealed in this fashion. This he did and returned it with three more sealed in the Spanish fashion. Arlington was startled to discover that he could not tell which was the original.
…After three months the King and Arlington visited him in his rooms to see the machines at work. For three hours they witness the counterfeiting of wax seals, wafers and “any handwriting whatever, so as not to be discovered by him who writes the original.”
…Charles gave orders that all these activities to be put into practice. They continued in use until the Great Fire of 1666 put an end to them."
Sir Samuel Morland's Trigonometric machine in London's Institute and Museum of the History of Science that vincent referred to:
Cooper, Samuel (artist) 1609 - 1672
Portrait of Sir Samuel Morland, Bt
Miniature, Watercolour on vellum
ca. 1660-1661 (painted)
England (probably, painted)
V&A Museum number: 481-1903 Bequeathed by Mrs A. B. Woodcroft
Gallery location: Portrait Miniatures, room 90a, case 17
At last, when the plot was laid among the Cavaliers for a general insurrection, the King was desired to come over to that which was to be raised in Sussex: He was to have landed near Chichester, all by Willis's management: And a snare was laid for him, in which he would probably have been caught, if Morland, Thurlo's under secretary, who was a prying man, had not discovered the correspondence between his Master and Willis, and warned the King of his danger. Yet it was not easy to persuade those who had trusted Willis so much, and who thought him faithful in all respects, to believe that he could be guilty of so black a treachery: So Morland's advertisement was look'd on as an artifice to create jealousy. But he to give a full conviction observed where the secretary laid some letters of advice, on which he saw he relied most, and getting the key of that cabinet in his hand to seal a letter with a seal that hung to it, he took the impression of it in wax, and got a key to be made from it, by which he opened the cabinet, and sent over some of the most important of those letters. The hand was known, and this artful but black treachery was discovered: So the design of the rising was laid aside. Sir George Booth having engaged at the same time to raise a body in Cheshire, two several messengers were sent to him to let him know the design could not be executed at the time appointed: But both these persons were inspected by some garrisons thro' which they must pass, as giving no good account of themselves in a time of jealousy, and were so long stopt, that they could not give him notice in time: So he very gallantly performed his part: But not being seconded he was soon crushed by Lambert.
---History of His Own Time, v.1. G.Burnet, 1724.
Samuel Morland, of Sulhamsted Banister, in Berkshire, was some time one of the under secretaries to Thurloe. He was employed by the protector in several embassies, and was in 1657, his resident at Geneva. His "History of the Evangelical Churches of Piedmont" was published in folio, 1658, with his head prefixed. He was sent to Savoy, to forward the charitable collection made in England for the Vaudois, and found the conveyance very difficult, as their enemies were hovering round to intercept it. The method of expediting money by bills was then much less known than it is at present. In the beginning of the year 1660, he waited on the king at Breda, and made several important discoveries; and was, in consideration of his services, the same year created a baronet. In 1695, was published his "Urim of Conscience,"; and some account of himself. I know not when he died, but am certain that he lived to an advanced age, and was, in the latter part of his life, afflicted with blindness. His son was master of the mechanics to Charles II. He invented the drum-headed capstan for weighing heavy anchors, the speaking-trumpet, an engine for quenching fires, an arithmetical instrument, &c.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1779.
Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.