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Andrew Rutherford
1st Earl of Teviot
Born Restalrig, Edinburgh, Scotland
Died 4 May 1664(1664-05-04)
Jews' Mount, Tangier, Morocco
Allegiance France, England
Rank Colonel général des Ecossais
Unit Garde Écossaise, Tangier Regiment
Battles/wars Siege of Thionville (1643)
Battle of Lens (1648)
Civil wars of the Fronde
Spouse(s) Susanna de Melville

Andrew Rutherford, 1st Earl of Teviot (died 4 May 1664; sometimes spelt "Rutherfurd") was a Scottish soldier.

Andrew was the fifth and youngest son of a merchant burgess of Edinburgh - William Rutherfurd (died 1624) of Wrightslands and of Easter and Wester Quarrelholes in Restalrig - and his wife Isobel (married 1608), daughter of James Stewart of Traquair. He received his education at Edinburgh University, and later took up a career in the military in France.

During the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum), Rutherford served the French government, which maintained regiments of Scottish soldiers throughout the Thirty Years's War. On the restoration of Charles II, Rutherford was taken into employment by his own king on the recommendation of Louis XIV of France. He eventually held a commission as Lieutenant-general in France and had a high reputation for personal courage, though this was certainly not (as claimed in the Oxford DNB) upon the death of the Earl of Irvine d.1645). Indeed, he only became a full colonel of one of the Scottish regiments in France in 1653.[1]

Rutherford returned to Scotland in 1660. In 1661 Charles II gave him the Scottish title of Lord Rutherfurd and the governorship of Dunkirk, which had been acquired by the Protector Oliver Cromwell. When Charles II sold the town to France in 1662 Rutherford was consoled by the command of the Colony of Tangier and the Tangier Regiment, and was made Earl of Teviot.

He was sent in 1663 as governor to Tangier. His tenure of office was very short, for on 4 May 1664 he was trapped in an ambush by the Moors, who had been carrying out incessant irregular warfare against the English garrison, and was killed, together with nineteen officers and nearly five hundred men of the garrison.

In his will he donated funds to his former university in Edinburgh, for the construction of 8 chambers.

References

  1. ^ Matthew Glozier, Scottish Soldiers in France the service of the Sun King (Brill, Leiden, 2004), p.263.
  • Matthew Glozier, Scottish Soldiers in France the service of the Sun King (Brill, Leiden, 2004).
  • W. F. Lord, The Lost Possessions of England (London, 1896).
Military offices
Preceded by
Henry Mordaunt
Governor of Tangier


1663 – 1664

Succeeded by
Sir Tobias Bridges
Colonel of the Tangier Regiment
1663–1664
Succeeded by
Henry Norwood

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

6 Annotations

Wim van der Meij  •  Link

Andrew, created Baron Rutherford, 1661, Earl of Teviot, 1663; successively Governor of Dunkirk and Tangier, where he was killed by the Moors in 1663. (Warrington)

language hat  •  Link

Companion:
Andrew Rutherford, cr. Baron Rutherford 1661, Earl of Teviot 1663 (d. 1664). A Roman Catholic and a professional soldier, of Scottish birth; Colonel of the Gardes Ecossaises in the French army in the 1650s; Governor of Dunkirk 1660-2 and of Tangier 1663-4. His heir was a relative, Sir Thomas Rutherford of Hunthill, who succeeded to the barony by nomination, the earldom becoming extinct.

pedro  •  Link

Teviot.

The second commander and governor was the Lord Andrew Rutherford, a distinguished Scottish soldier, previously the governor of Dunkirk. He was created Earl of Teviot 'to hearten him for his new post'. He was a professional soldier, chiefly responsible for the evacuation of Dunkirk, from which town he brought 400 soldiers who reinforced the Tangier Regiment. These were mostly Irishmen and he reorganised the his troops into separate English and Irish regiments. Many people in Britain felt apprehension that a Roman Catholic should command so many Catholic soldiers. When he arrived he found the garrison demoralised by the constant attacks and the fortifications in urgent need of repair. Under his energetic leadership a line of stone redoubts was constructed beyond the town walls, which were strengthened with a number of forts. Teviot also started to build a much needed breakwater or mole, to provide an all-weather harbour for ships. King Charles offered Sir Christopher Wren a commission 'to survey and direct the works of the mole and fortifications of the citadel and town', but Wren turned it down because of ill health.

Truces were agreed with Gayland, but he proved a most treacherous enemy. In one sortie, the heavily outnumbered English troops were ambushed and lost 19 officers and 400 men killed, with Teviot among them, dying at the head of his men. To add to the garrison's problems, illness broke out, stores and provisions were low and costly, and the troops received no pay for several months.

http://www.kipar.org/military-history/kirkes_hi...

TerryF  •  Link

TEVIOT, ANDREW RUTHERFORD, EARL OF (d. 1664), was the son of William Rutherford of Quarrelholes, Roxburghshire. His education was received in Edinburgh, and he took up the career of soldier of fortune. His services were given to the French government, which maintained regiments of Scottish mercenaries. On the restoration of Charles II., Rutherford was taken into employment by his own king on the recommendation of Louis XIV. of France. He had held a commission as lieutenant-general in France and had a high reputation for personal courage. Charles II. gave him the Scottish title of Lord Rutherford and the governorship of Dunkirk, which had been acquired by the Protector Oliver Cromwell. When Charles II. sold the town to France in 1662 Rutherford was consoled by the command of the 2nd or Tangier regiment, was made earl of Teviot in the peerage of Scotland, and was sent in 1663 as governor to Tangier. His tenure of office was very short, for on the 4th of May 1664 he allowed himself to be entrapped into an ambush by the Moors, who carried on incessant irregular warfare against the English garrison, and was killed, together with nineteen officers and nearly five hundred men of his garrison.

See W. F. Lord, The Lost Possessions of England (London, 1896). http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/T/TE/TEVIOT_EAR...

language hat  •  Link

Teviot in Tangier:

"When Andrew Rutherford, Earl of Teviot, assumed the governorship, he immediately improved the defences. He realized that the key to Tangier lay in controlling the overlooking heights. During his governorship (1663—4) he built five forts and redoubts beyond the city walls, covered by the main artillery along the curtain... Under Peterborough's pusillanimous command (1662—4) the garrison allowed itself to be locked within the town following the defeat of Major Nathaniel Fiennes. A dynamic leadership was required and this was provided by Teviot until he overreached himself and was killed in 1664 when his reconnaissance party was cut off on Jew's Hill."

Incidentally, although the river which ultimately lies behind the name of the earldom is pronounced TEE-vyot, the earldom is pronounced TEV-i-ot.

language hat  •  Link

Source:
Sorry - that quote is from "The Restoration Army 1660-1672" by John Childs in The Oxford History of the British Army, edited by David Chandler and Ian F W Beckett.

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References

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