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Robert Montagu, 3rd Earl of Manchester JP (baptised 25 April 1634 – 14 March 1683) was an English courtier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1671 when he inherited the peerage as Earl of Manchester.
Montagu was the son of Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester and his second wife Lady Anne Rich, daughter of Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick. He was born in the parish of St. Margaret's, Westminster, and baptised there on 25 April 1634.
From 1649 to 1654, he was travelling abroad. He was captain of the militia horse for Huntingdonshire in April 1660.
Also in April 1660, Montagu was returned as Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire in the Convention Parliament and in the following month was one of the members who waited on the king at the Hague. He was a J.P. for Huntingdonshire and Northamptonshire, from July 1660 to 1681. Also in July, he was commissioner for oyer and terminer for the Midland circuit. From August 1660, he was commissioner for assessment and Deputy Lieutenant for Huntingdonshire until 1671.
In 1661, Montagu was again elected MP for Huntingdonshire in the Cavalier Parliament. In 1663, he became commissioner for assessment for Huntingdon and Northamptonshire until 1671, and was sent on a mission to the French king. He was created M.A. by the university of Oxford, on 8 September 1665. In February 1666, he succeeded the Earl of Newport as gentleman of the bedchamber to the king. In 1666 and 1667 Montagu was a captain of the Duke of Monmouth’s Horse in the eastern counties while the Dutch were on the coast.
Montagu inherited the title of Earl of Manchester on the death of his father in 1671 and took on the posts of Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire and Custos Rotulorum In 1672 he became master of the swans and also water-bailiff for Whittlesey Mere. He became high steward of Cambridge University in 1677.
In October 1681 Lord Manchester decided to go abroad because he had become too closely involved with cabalistic men in Northamptonshire. He died at Montpellier in France at the age of about 48 and was buried at Kimbolton.
Montagu married, on 27 June 1655, at St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, Anne Yelverton, daughter of Sir Christopher Yelverton, 1st Baronet of Easton Maudit in Northamptonshire, by whom he had five sons and four daughters. 
- Hon. Edward.
- Hon. Henry.
- Lady Anne Montagu (c. 1667–1720), married James Howard, 3rd Earl of Suffolk.
- Charles Montagu, 1st Duke of Manchester (c. 1656–1722)
- Lady Elizabeth Montagu (b. c. 1682)
- Lady Catherine Montagu, married Samuel Edwin
- Hon. Robert Montagu (d. 1693)
- Hon. Heneage Montagu (1675–1698)
- Lady Eleanor Montagu, died unmarried.
Styles of address
- 1634–1642: The Honourable Robert Montagu
- 1642–1660: Viscount Mandeville
- 1660: Viscount Mandeville MP
- 1660: Viscount Mandeville MP JP
- 1660–1671: Viscount Mandeville MP JP DL
- 1671–1681: The Right Honourable The Earl of Manchester JP
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Porter, Bertha (1893). "Montagu, Edward (1602-1671)". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 35. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
|Parliament of England|
| Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire
With: Henry Cromwell
Sir Nicholas Pedley
The 1st Earl of Sandwich
| Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire
jointly with The 1st Earl of Sandwich 1671–1672
The Earl of Ailesbury
(for The 2nd Earl of Sandwich)
| Custos Rotulorum of Huntingdonshire|
|Peerage of England|
| Earl of Manchester