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Levant Company
Company typePublic chartered
IndustryInternational trade
  • Venice Company
  • Turkey Company
Founded11 September 1592[1]
FounderSir Edward Osborne
Defunct19 May 1825
FateDissolved by the Dissolution of Levant Company Act 1825 (c. 33 6 Geo. 4); consular establishments taken over by the Board of Trade
Number of locations
Various across Europe and Near East
Area served
Eastern Mediterranean
ProductsRum and spices; cloth: cottons and woollens, kerseys, indigo, gall, camlet; tin, pewter, maroquin, soda ash.
ServicesTrade and commerce
Total assetsMerchant shipping
Total equityJoint-stock capital company
  • Government of England (until 1 May 1707)
  • Government of Great Britain (1 May 1707 – 31 December 1800)
  • Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (from 1 January 1801)
Number of employees
ParentEnglish/British Crown
DivisionsTurkish, Levantine, Venetian littoral

The Levant Company was an English chartered company formed in 1592. Elizabeth I of England approved its initial charter on 11 September 1592 when the Venice Company (1583) and the Turkey Company (1581) merged, because their charters had expired, as she was eager to maintain trade and political alliances with the Ottoman Empire.[1] Its initial charter was good for seven years and was granted to Edward Osborne, Richard Staper, Thomas Smith and William Garrard with the purpose of regulating English trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Levant. The company remained in continuous existence until being superseded in 1825. A member of the company was known as a Turkey Merchant.[2][3]


The origins of the Levant Company lay in the Italian trade with Constantinople, and the wars against the Turks in Hungary, although a parallel was routed to Morocco and the Barbary Coast on a similar trade winds as early as 1413.[4] The collapse of the Venetian empire, high tariffs, and the ousting of the Genoese from Scio (Chios)[5] had left a vacuum that was filled by a few intrepid adventurers in their own cog vessels with endeavour to reopen trade with the East on their own accounts.[6] Following a decline in trade with the Levant over a number of decades, several London merchants petitioned Queen Elizabeth I in 1580 for a charter to guarantee exclusivity when trading in that region.[7] In 1580 a treaty was signed between England and the Ottoman Empire, giving English merchants trading rights similar to those enjoyed by French merchants. In 1582, William Harborne, an English merchant who had carried out most of the treaty negotiations in Constantinople to French protestations, made himself permanent envoy. But by 1586 Harborne was appointed 'Her Majesty's ambassador' to the Ottoman Empire, with all his expenses (including gifts given to the Sultan and his court) to be paid by the Levant Company.[8]

When the charters of the Venice Company and the Turkey Company expired, both companies were merged into the Levant Company in 1592 after Queen Elizabeth I approved its charter as part of her diplomacy with the Ottoman Empire.[1]

The company had no colonial aspirations, but rather established "factories" (trading centers) in already-established commercial centers, such as the Levant Factory in Aleppo, as well as Constantinople, Alexandria and Smyrna. Throughout the company's history, Aleppo functioned as the central hub for the entire Middle East operations. By 1588, the Levant Company had been converted to a regulated monopoly on an established trade route, from its initial character as a joint-stock company. The prime movers in the conversion were Sir Edward Osborne and Richard Staper.

In January 1592, a new charter was granted and by 1595 its character as a regulated company had become clear.[9] In the early days of the company there were threats not just from Barbary pirates but also from Spain during the 1585 to 1604 war. In that conflict however the company with its heavily armed ships managed to repel the Spanish galleys intent on capturing the cargo in a number of pitched naval battles, in 1586, 1590, 1591 and 1600[10] The company as a result surrendered some of their ships to the English Crown and were used during the Spanish Armada campaign proving their worth.

James I (1603–25) renewed and confirmed the company's charter in 1606, adding new privileges.[11] However he engaged in a verbal anti-Turk crusade and neglected direct relations with the Turks. The government did not interfere with trade, which expanded. Especially profitable was the arms trade as the Porte modernised and re-equipped its forces. Of growing importance was textile exports. Between 1609 and 1619, the export of cloth to the Turks increased from 46% to 79% of total cloth exports. The business was highly lucrative. Piracy continued to be a threat. Despite the anti-Ottoman rhetoric of the king, commercial relations with the Turks expanded. The king's finances were increasingly based on the revenues derived from this trade, and English diplomacy was complicated by this trade. For example, James refused to provide financial support to Poland for its war against the Turks.[12]

During the English Civil War (1642–1651), some innovations were made in the government of the company, allowing many people to become members who were not qualified by the charters of Elizabeth and James, or who did not conform to the regulations prescribed. Charles II, upon his restoration, endeavored to set the company upon its original basis; to which end, he gave them a charter, containing not only a confirmation of their old one, but also several new articles of reformation.

Organisation in 1661

By the charter of King Charles II in 1661, the company was erected into a body politic, capable of making laws, under the title of the Company of Merchants of England trading to the Seas of the Levant. The number of members was not limited, but averaged about 300. The principal qualification required was that the candidate be a wholesale merchant, either by family, or by serving an apprenticeship of seven years. Those under 25 years of age paid 25 pounds at their admission; those above, twice as much. Each made an oath, at his entrance, not to send any merchandise to the Levant, except on his own account; and not to consign them to any but the company's agents, or factors. The company governed itself by a plurality of voices.[13]

The company had a court, or board at London, composed of a governor, sub-governor, and twelve directors, or assistants; who were all actually to live in London, or the suburbs. They also had a deputy-governor, in every city and port where there were any members of the company. This assembly at London sent out the vessels, regulated the tariff for the price at which the European merchandise sent to the Levant were to be sold; and for the quality of those returned. It raised taxes on merchandise, to defray impositions, and the common expense of the company; presented the ambassador, which the King was to keep at the port; elected two consuls for Smyrna and Constantinople, etc. As the post of ambassador to the Sublime Porte became increasingly important, the Crown had to assume control of the appointment.

One of the best regulations of the company was not to leave the consuls, or even the ambassador, to fix the impositions on the vessels for defraying the common expenses—something that was fatal to the companies of most other nations—but to allow a pension to the ambassador and consuls, and even to the chief officers—including the chancellor, secretary, chaplain, interpreters, and janissaries—so that there was no pretence for their raising any sum at all on the merchants or merchandises. It was true that the ambassador and consul might act alone on these occasions, but the pensions being offered to them on condition of declining them, they chose not to act.

Portrait in Turkish costume of Turkey merchant Francis Levett (1700–1764), chief representative of the Levant Company at Constantinople, 1737–1750

In extraordinary cases, the consuls, and even ambassador himself, had recourse to two deputies of the company, residing in the Levant, or if the affair be very important, assemble the whole nation. Here were regulated the presents to be given, the voyages to be made, and every thing to be deliberated; and on the resolutions here taken, the deputies appointed the treasurer to furnish the required funds. The ordinary commerce of this company employed from 20 to 25 vessels, of between 25 and 30 pieces of cannon.

The merchandises exported there were limited in quality and range, suggesting an imbalance of trade; they included traditional cloths, especially shortcloth and kerseys, tin, pewter, lead, black pepper, re-exported cochineal, black rabbit skins and a great deal of American silver, which the English took up at Cadiz. The more valuable returns were in raw silk, cotton wool and yarn, currants and raisins, nutmeg, black pepper, indigo, galls, camlets, wool and cotton cloth, the soft leathers called maroquins, soda ash for making glass and soap, and several gums and medicinal drugs. Velvet, carpets, and silk were bought by the traders.[14]

The commerce of the company to Smyrna, Constantinople, and İskenderun, was much less considerable than that of the East India Company; but was, more advantageous to England, because it took off much more of the English products than the other, which was chiefly carried on in money. The places reserved for the commerce of this company included all the states of Venice, in the Gulf of Venice; the state of Ragusa; all the states of the "Grand Signior" (the Ottoman Sultan), and the ports of the Levant and Mediterranean Basin; excepting Cartagena, Alicante, Barcelona, Valencia, Marseilles, Toulon, Genoa, Livorno (Leghorn), Civitavecchia, Palermo, Messina, Malta, Majorca, Menorca, and Corsica; and other places on the coasts of France, Spain, and Italy.[15]

Levantine shipping

Ships owned by the Levant Company from 1581 to 1640:[16]

  • Alathia
  • Alcede
  • Alice and Thomas
  • Alice Thomas
  • Aleppo Merchant
  • Angel
  • Anne Frane
  • Ascension
  • Bark Burre
  • Barque Reynolds
  • Centurion
  • Charity
  • Cherubim
  • Christ
  • Clement
  • Cock
  • Concord
  • Consent
  • Cosklett
  • Darling
  • Delight
  • Desire
  • Diamond
  • Dragon
  • Eagle
  • Edward Bonaventure
  • Elizabeth and Dorcas
  • Elizabeth Cocken
  • Elizabeth Stoaks
  • Elnathan
  • Emanuel
  • Experience
  • Freeman
  • George Bonaventure
  • Gift of God
  • Golden Noble
  • Grayhound
  • Great Phoenix
  • Great Suzanne
  • Greenfield
  • Guest
  • Gyllyon
  • Harry
  • Harry Bonaventure
  • Hector
  • Hercules
  • Husband
  • Industry
  • The Jane
  • Jesus
  • Jewel
  • Job
  • John
  • John Francis
  • Jollian
  • Jonas
  • Lanavit
  • Lewis
  • Little George
  • London
  • Margaret
  • Margaret Bonaventure
  • Marget and John
  • Marigold
  • Mary
  • Mary Anne
  • Mary Coust
  • Mary Martin
  • Mary Rose
  • Mayflower
  • Merchant Bonaventure
  • Mignon
  • Paragon
  • Peregrine
  • Phoenix
  • Primrose
  • Prosperous
  • Providence
  • Rainbow
  • Rebecca
  • Recovery
  • Red Lion
  • Report
  • Resolution
  • Roebuck
  • Royal Defence
  • Royal Exchange
  • Royal Merchant
  • Saker
  • Salamander
  • Salutation
  • Samaritan
  • Sampson
  • Samuel
  • Saphire
  • Scipio
  • Society
  • Solomon
  • Suzanne
  • Suzanne Parnell
  • Swallow
  • Teagre
  • Thomas and William
  • Thomas Bonaventure
  • Thomasine
  • Toby of Harwich
  • Trinity
  • Trinity Bear
  • Triumph
  • Unicorn
  • White Hind
  • William and John
  • William and Ralph
  • William and Thomas
  • William Fortune


The British government took over the Company in 1821 until its dissolution in 1825.

The ambassadors at Constantinople


At Smyrna

At Aleppo

Shipping numbers: Turkey and the Levant

Coat of arms of the Levant Company
Year Outward Ships Inward Ships
1800 6 14
1801 10 7
1802 18 19
1803 9 27
1804 1 13
1805 6 16
1806 1 18
1814 18 44
1815 13 44
1816 18 26
1817 21 45
1818 29 87
1819 40 53
1820 50 90
1821 31 53
1822 34 53
1823 40 87
1824 122 138
1825 95 167
1826 79 109
1827 61 101
1828 45 93
1829 74 73
1830 95 95



Dissolution of Levant Company Act 1825
Act of Parliament
Citation6 Geo. 4. c. 33
Royal assent10 June 1825

Membership began declining in the early eighteenth century. In its decline the company was looked upon as an abuse, a drain on the resources of Britain. The company's purview was thrown open to free trade in 1754, but continued its activities until dissolution in 1825.

The name of the bird called 'turkey' came from the Turkey merchants.[17][18]

Turkish opium was bought by the Levant Company.[19][20]

The Levant Company encompassed American merchants before 1811 who bought Turkish opium. These merchants would sell the opium to the Chinese, beginning in 1806. Among these American Turkey merchants were members of the famous Astor family.[21][22]


Flag of the Levant Company

The arms of the Levant Company were: Azure, on a sea in base proper, a ship with three masts in full sail or, between two rocks of the second, all the sails, pennants, and ensigns argent, each charged with a cross gules, a chief engrailed of the third, in base a seahorse proper. * The crest was: On a wreath of the colours, a demi seahorse saliant.

  • The supporters were: Two seahorses.
  • The Latin motto was: Deo reip et amicis.[23]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Kenneth R. Andrews (1964), Elizabethan Privateering 1583–1603, Cambridge University Press
  2. ^ Mather, James (May 2011). "The Turkey Merchants". History Today. 61 (5).
  3. ^ Searight, Sarah (June 1966). "The Turkey Merchants: Life in the Levant Company". History Today. 16 (6).
  4. ^ Rymer, Foedera, viii, p. 732; Wood, p.
  5. ^, "On 14 April 1566 a fleet of 80 galleys, commanded by Piyale Paşa arrive in the port of Chios and succeeds to occupy without a fight"
  6. ^ privateer merchant ships recorded as setting out from England included, Anne (1446), Katherine Sturmy (1457), (Lipson, Economic, I, p. 505); Antony (1478), Mary de Toowre (1482), (Power and Postan, p. 45.); Jesus of Lübeck (1552), Mary Gonson (1552), Williamson, (Maritime Entreprise, p. 223)
  7. ^ The London Port Books from the 1560s and 1570s do not record any shipments by English merchants to or from the Levant, when Venice filled the role of intermediary and Antwerp retained its position as entrepôt. (Willan 1955:400ff.)
  8. ^ Michael Strachan, "The life and Adventures of Thomas Coryate", OUP, 1962.
  9. ^ Willan 1955:405–07.
  10. ^ Corbett, Julian S (1900). The Successors of Drake (1596–1603). Longmans. p. 297.
  11. ^ Anderson, Adam (1764). An Historical and Chronological Deduction of the Origin of Commerce. Vol. 1. p. 468.
  12. ^ Eysturlid, 1993
  13. ^ Mortimer Epstein, The early history of the Levant Company (1908) pp. 67–99 online.
  14. ^ "Turkey-merchant". Fine Dictionary. Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary.
  15. ^ Despina Vlami, Trading with the Ottomans: The Levant Company in the Middle East (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014).
  16. ^ The Early History of The Levant Company, M. Epstein, M.A., Ph.D., London, George Rutledge & Sons, 1908
  17. ^ "How Turkey Got Its Name". Now I Know. 23 November 2010.
  18. ^ Forsyth, Mark (27 November 2013). "The Turkey's Turkey Connection". The New York Times.
  19. ^ "Opium Throughout History: The Opium Kings". PBS. 1998.
  20. ^ M. Kienholz (2008). Opium Traders and Their Worlds – Volume One: A Revisionist Exposé of the World's Greatest Opium Traders. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-91078-6.
  21. ^ Clifford Putney; Paul T. Burlin (2012). The Role of the American Board in the World: Bicentennial Reflections on the Organization's Missionary Work, 1810–2010. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-1-61097-640-4.
  22. ^ Smith, Van (21 October 2014). "Baltimore's narcotic history dates back to the 19th-century shipping-driven boom, quietly aided by bringing Turkish opium to China". Baltimore City Paper. Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  23. ^ As recorded in Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (1915). The Book of Public Arms. T. C. & E. C. Jack. p. 436.



  • Fawkener, W (19 October 1790). Add MSS Memorandum (ff. 80–97): from the Office of the Committee of the Privy Council for trade) to the Dukes of Leeds on the Turkey Company trade.
  • Harley MSS, 306 Standing Ordinances of the Levant Company (ff. 72–74) c. 1590
  • Lansdowne MSS. 60 Petition of the Turkey and Venice Merchants to be incorporated into one body (f.8) c. 1590–91
  • MSS Bodleian Library Folio 665, (i List of the Membership of The Levant Company, 1701 (ff. 97–98)
  • British Museum, 1718. Paragraphs of Some Letters to Prove the Reasonablness of The Levant Company 's late order to carry on their trade by general ships, Bodleian Pamphlets, Folio 666, ff. 288–89.
  • 1718–1719, The Case of The Levant Company, British Museum. 351–356, 6(40)
  • 1825, Proceedings of The Levant Company respecting the Surrender of their Charters, BM6/6259


  • Calendar of State Papers, Venetian 1581–1591
  • Calendar of State Papers, Domestic 1547–1580
  • Bent, J. T. (October 1890). "The English in The Levant Company". English Historical Review. 5.
  • Epstein, M. (1908). The Early History of the Levant Company. London; New York: George Routledge & Sons; Dutton. Retrieved 23 October 2017. Covers the years of the periodic charterers, 1581–1605 and the permanent charter to 1640.
  • Eysturlid, Lee W. (Winter 1993). "Where Everything is Weighed in the Scales of Material Interest: Anglo-Turkish Trade, Picary, and Diplomacy in the Mediterranean during the Jacobean Period". Journal of European Economic History. 22 (3).
  • Lans-Poole, S. (1833). The Life of Stratford Canning. Vol. 2 vols. London.
  • Mather, James (2009). Pashas: Traders and Travellers in the Islamic World. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300170917.
  • Rosedale, H.G. (1904). Queen Elizabeth and The Levant Company. London: Henry Frowde. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  • Paget, Sir Arthur (1896). Diplomatic Correspondence and Other Correspondence. Vol. 2 vols. London: Heinemann.
  • Wood, Alfred C. (1935). A History of the Levant Company. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 23 October 2017.

Further reading

1893 text

The Turkey or Levant Company was established in 1581.

This text comes from a footnote on a diary entry in the 1893 edition edited by Henry B. Wheatley.

5 Annotations

First Reading

Terry F  •  Link

"1581 the Turkey Company was formed, and in 1592 it merged with the Venice Company (founded 1583) to form the Levant Company. It obtained a patent from Elizabeth I for the exclusive right to trade in currants (dried white grapes, i.e. golden raisins). The Company also purchased wine, cotton and silk from the Eastern Mediterranean."…

dirk  •  Link

More info:

"Muslims of London: A Brief Historical Overview"
More general background info on the Turkey Co., the Barbary Company (1585), and the East India Company (1600):…

"The English in India before the East India Company":…

Merchants and Bankers 1575 - 1600
(search for "Turkey Company")…

And for those who read German, very interesting reading:
Vom Inselreich zur Weltmacht…

Terry F  •  Link

The trading companies were the outreach of Guilds and Companies of the City.
"On the 9th of May 1345, twenty-two members of the ancient Guild of Pepperers founded a fraternity which, in 1376, became The Company of Grocers of London.
"The Fraternity was entrusted with the duty of garbling, or preventing the adulteration of spices and drugs, as well as with the charge of the King's Beam, which weighed all merchandise sold by the Aver-de-Poys weight or the peso grosso. The Company probably derives its name from the Latin, grossarius, one who buys and sells in the gross, in other words a wholesale merchant: since its earliest days the members were wholesale dealers in spices and foreign produce." [whose agents followed the trade-routes to the source in the East]…

Second Reading

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.