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Ward of Bishopsgate
A circa 1650 print of the gate
Bishopsgate Ward within the city - after the boundary changes of 1994 and 2003
Ward of Bishopsgate is located in Greater London
Ward of Bishopsgate
Ward of Bishopsgate
Location within Greater London
Population222 (2011 Census Ward)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ330813
Sui generis
Administrative areaGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtEC2
Dialling code020
PoliceCity of London
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly

Bishopsgate was one of the eastern gates in London's former defensive wall. The gate's name is traditionally attributed to Earconwald, who was Bishop of London in the 7th century. It was first built in Roman times and marked the beginning of Ermine Street, the ancient road running from London to York (Eboracum). The gate was rebuilt twice in the 15th and 18th centuries, but was permanently demolished in 1760.

Bishopsgate gave its name to the Bishopsgate Ward of the City of London. The ward is traditionally divided into Bishopsgate Within, inside the line of the former wall, and Bishopsgate Without beyond it. Bishopsgate Without is described as part of London's East End.[2] The ancient boundaries of the City wards were reviewed in 1994 and 2013, so that the wards no longer correspond very closely to their historic extents. Bishopsgate Without gained a significant part of Shoreditch from the London Borough of Hackney, while nearly all of Bishopsgate Within was transferred to other wards.

Bishopsgate is also the name of the street, being the part of the originally Roman Ermine Street (now the A10) within the traditional extent of the Ward.

The gate

The gate was first built in the Roman era, probably at the time the wall was first built. The road though the gate, Ermine Street (known at this point as Bishopsgate) was in place long before the wall and the gate.

manuscript image of a Saxon saint
St Erkenwald, Saxon Prince, bishop and saint known as the "Light of London": Bishopsgate is thought to be named after him, and he is understood to have restored the gate

The gate is traditionally held to be named after Earconwald, a 7th-century Bishop of London[3] (Bishop of the East Saxons).[4] One of the ward's ancient churches, St Ethelburga-the-Virgin within Bishopsgate, is dedicated to Eorconwald's sister, St Ethelburga of Barking, the first Abbess of Barking Abbey.

In 1471, during the Wars of the Roses, the Yorkist-turned supporter of the House of Lancaster Bastard Fauconberg attacked London, trying to force his way across London Bridge and also attacking the eastern gates with a further five thousand men and artillery.[5] Bishopsgate was set on fire[6] and the attackers came close to capturing nearby Aldgate and with it the city. The attackers were repulsed from both gates with heavy losses, before being chased back to Bow Bridge and Blackwall.

The Bishop's Gate was rebuilt by the Hansa merchants in 1471 in exchange for steelyard privileges. Its final form was erected in 1735 by the City authorities, but demolished in 1760. This gate often displayed the heads of criminals on spikes. London Wall (which is no longer extant in this sector) divided the ward and road into an intramural portion called Bishopsgate Within and an extramural portion called Bishopsgate Without.

The site of this former gate is marked by a stone bishop's mitre, fixed high upon a building located near Bishopsgate's junction with Wormwood Street, by the gardens there and facing the Heron Tower.

Ward

The ward is notable for its skyscrapers, and is home to the main London offices of several major banks, including National Westminster Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Although tens of thousands of people commute to and work in the ward, it has a resident population of only 222 (2011).[7]

The ward is divided into two parts by the line of the former London Wall and gate which lay just north of Wormwood and Camomile Streets.

The City of London's ancient wards, before the boundary changes of 1994 and 2013

Bishopsgate Without

Bishopsgate Without corresponds to the parish of St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate. The church is located immediately north of the site of the original Gate on the west side of the road. The church was one of four in medieval London dedicated to Saint Botolph or Botwulf, a 7th-century East Anglian saint; three of these were outside city gates, with a fourth near London Bridge and the riverside wharves. The locations result from Botolph being regarded as the patron saint of boundaries, and by extension of trade and travel.[8]

St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate lay immediately north of the original Bishopsgate, and of the defensive ditch around London's Wall.

The eastern boundary of Bishopsgate Without is formed by Middlesex Street (better known as Petticoat Lane), with Blomfield Street on the western boundary. Blomfield Street was built on part of the historic course of the former River Walbrook, known at this point as Deepditch. Beyond Deepditch was the Moorfields (in Coleman Street Ward).[9] The Blomfield Street section of the river was the focal point of the Walbrook Skulls; the result of the deposit of large quantities of decapitated Roman-era human skulls into the water.[10] These are still often uncovered during building work.

Bishopsgate Without was, from 1247 to 1633, the first home of the Bethlem Royal Hospital (also known as Bedlam). This psychiatric hospital lay immediately north of St Botolph's church.

The original Bedlam Hospital. The Deepditch, to the west, is the main branch of the River Walbrook.
The frontage of Paul Pindar's house on Bishopgate is preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Around 1597, the merchant Sir Paul Pindar, purchased several existing properties, and built himself a new home on the site (incorporating part of one or more of the old properties). The house had a fairly narrow frontage but extended a long way back. Bishopsgate Street had recently been paved, making the site convenient for Pindar's business activities in East Anglia. The house had views over the open space in nearby Moorfields and Finsbury Fields, west of the Walbrook.[11] The house was soon prestigious enough to be used as a base by several foreigh ambassadors, including the Venetian ambassador Pietro Contarini in 1617–18.[12]

The district was then on the edge of London, something Contarini had mixed feelings about, describing Bishopsgate Without as "…an airy and fashionable area…a little too much in the country"[13]

In the 1600s, Bishopsgate Without, together with neighbouring Bethnal Green and Spitalfields was home to many Huguenot refugees, many of them weavers.[14] In the late 1600s wealthy residents began to migrate to the newly developed areas of West End of London and the character of the area began to change,[15] partly due to the more prosperous parts of the community leaving, and partly to the densification of the area and rapid urbanisation of the neighbouring rural areas.

In time, the East and West Ends of London became more strikingly different in character, writing of the period around 1800, Rev. Richardson commented:

The inhabitants of the extreme east of London knew nothing of the western localities and vice-versa. There was little communication or sympathy between the two ends of London.

…and thus the householders of Westminster were as distinct from householders of Bishopsgate Without, Shoreditch and all those localities which stretch towards the Essex side of the city, as they are from the inhabitants of Holland or Belgium.

— Rev. J. Richardson (1856)[16]

Bishopsgate Without was a very densely populated neighbourhood, prior to the opening (1874) and later expansion (1891) of Liverpool Street station, which now dominates the area. The initial opening of the station saw 3,000 residents of Bishopsgate Without evicted and their homes demolished. Around 7,000 people in neighbouring Shoreditch also lost their homes to the railway tracks feeding into the station.[17]

Notable buildings include:

Looking south from Norton Folgate down Bishopsgate

Bishopsgate Within

Bishopsgate Within was originally divided into many parishes, each with its own parish church: St Andrew Undershaft, St Ethelburga Bishopsgate, St Martin Outwich, St Mary Axe and St Helen's Bishopsgate, now all amalgamated under the last of these. St Helen's is a historic medieval church and former monastic establishment with many ancient funerary monuments and a stained glass window commemorating William Shakespeare, a local parishioner in the early to mid-1590s. The area was well located for Shakespeare, being close to the theatres in Shoreditch where he worked; The Theatre and the Curtain Theatre.

Notable buildings include:

Ward boundary changes

The 1994 (city), 2003 and 2013 (ward) boundary revisions made fundamental changes to the ancient boundaries of the ward. The 1994 changes saw Bishopsgate Without (and with it the City of London) gain a large area from the Shoreditch area of the London Borough of Hackney,[18]

The changes made in 2003 and 2013 shifted land between wards of the city. The effect of this was to transfer nearly all of Bishopsgate Within (except for a small area surrounding the Leathersellers' livery hall) to other wards.[19] The ward previously extended much further south, along the Bishopsgate road and Gracechurch Street. At this time Bishopsgate Without lost a small block of buildings east Blomfield Street to the Broad Street ward.

There were no changes to Bishopsgate's ward boundaries in the 2013 boundary changes.[19]

The revised ward borders the London Borough of Hackney to the north, it neighbours The Portsoken and the borough of Tower Hamlets in the east. The other neighbours are Aldgate (southeast), Coleman Street (west), Cornhill (south-west), Broad Street and Lime Street (south).

Politics

Bishopsgate is one of 25 wards in the City of London, each electing an Alderman to the Court of Aldermen, and Commoners (the City equivalent of a councillor) to the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation. Only electors who are Freemen of the City of London are eligible to stand. On 15 September 2022 the ward elected Kawsar Zaman as its Alderman.[20] He is only the third non-white Alderman in the city's hundreds of years of history, the first British-Bangladeshi ever to hold the office, and the youngest ever elected to the Court of Alderman.

Street

The street called Bishopsgate (formerly Bishopsgate Street), which takes its name from the Gate, is the main thoroughfare of the Ward. It is a stretch of the originally Roman Ermine Street (now the A10) between Gracechurch Street and Norton Folgate,[21] taking the name Bishopsgate only within the historical area of the ward.

Although it takes its name from the gate, the road pre-dates the building of the London Wall which was built in the late second or early third centuries. Ermine Street (sometimes called the Old North Road) connected London to Cambridge, Lincoln, York and other towns and cities.

History

Early history

In the Roman period it was illegal to bury the dead within the city, so cemeteries were established outside the city gates. There were large burial grounds outside Bishopsgate, on both side of Ermine Street.[22]

Bishopsgate Without served by a single coterminous parish, with Bishopsgate Within formerly served by five

The wards of London appear to have taken shape in the 11th century, before the Norman Conquest. Their administrative, judicial and military purpose made them equivalent to hundreds in the countryside. The primary purpose of wards like Bishopsgate, which included a gate, appears to be the defence of the gate,[23] as gates were the weakest points in any fortification.

Bishopsgate-Street Ward in 1720

The earliest origins of the wards reach back further than the 11th century but their emergence and evolution is uncertain and any narrative conjectural.[24] The ward may have developed from the Soke of Bishopsgate, a set of rights, and possibly land, held by the Bishop of London over an area to the east of the River Walbrook. The Bishop may have been granted the land and rights in order to promote growth in the under-developed part of the city east of the Walbrook. Outside the wall the Walbrook formed the boundary between the Soke of Bishopsgate to the east and the Soke of Cripplegate on the other side of the brook.[25]

Bishopsgate may have originally included the area that subsequently became known as Lime Street Ward.[26]

The Domesday Survey of 1086 did not cover London, but a landholding called Bishopsgate is recorded nearby; this may have been the property later known as Norton Folgate.[27]

Coaching inns

Bishopsgate had many coaching inns which accommodated passengers setting out on the originally Roman Ermine Street, that issued from the gate. Although they survived the Great Fire of London, they have now all been demolished. These included the Angel, the Black Bull, the Dolphin, the Flower Pot, the Green Dragon, the Magpie and Punchbowl, the White Hart and the Wrestlers. The Black Bull was a venue for the Queen's Men theatrical troupe in the 16th century.[28] The English politician Anthony Bacon moved nearby with his mother in May 1594 and she complained about the plays and interludes at the Bull which might "corrupt his servants".[29]

Bishopsgate Victorian Bath House, now run as a restaurant and event venue

An inn called the Catherine Wheel (demolished 1911) is commemorated by Catherine Wheel Alley which leads off Bishopsgate to the east.[30] The 17th century façade of Sir Paul Pindar's House on Bishopsgate, demolished, with many other old buildings, for the expansion of Liverpool Street railway station in 1890, was also preserved and can now be seen in the Victoria and Albert Museum. In the 18th century this grand residence became a tavern called Sir Paul Pindar's Head;[31] another notable venue was the London Tavern (1768–1876). Also demolished (but then re-erected in Chelsea in 1910) was the old Crosby Hall, at one time the residence of Richard III and Thomas More.

Bishopsgate Mutiny

In 1649, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Colonel Whalley's Regiment, a parliamentary unit, was stationed in Bishopsgate Ward, helping to protect London from Royalists. The Bishopsgate mutiny occurred when soldiers of the regiment, mutinied against parliament - partly due to their radical Leveller sympathies. A surrender was eventually negotiated, but Robert Lockyer a parishioner of Bishopsgate Without as well as a soldier in the regiment, was executed as a ringleader.

Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto was first printed, anonymously and in German, by the Workers Educational Association at 46 Liverpool Street in Bishopsgate Without in 1848.[32]

Terrorist attack

On 24 April 1993, it was the site of an IRA truck bombing which killed journalist Ed Henty, injured over 40 people and caused £1 billion worth of damage,[33] including the destruction of St Ethelburga's church and damage to the NatWest Tower and Liverpool Street station. Police had received a coded warning, but were still evacuating the area at the time of the explosion. The area had already suffered damage from the Baltic Exchange bombing one year before.

St Ethelburga's was rebuilt, functioning not just as a church but also as home to the St Ethelburga's Centre for Reconciliation and Peace charity.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "City of London ward population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  2. ^ Beyond the Tower: a history of East London. by John Marriot. In it refers back to 18th century descriptions of Bishopsgate Without and Shoreditch as EE districts
  3. ^ Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert (1983) The London Encyclopedia
  4. ^ On the Diocese of London originally serving the East Saxons "Our History". London Diocesan Board for Schools. 8 February 2021. Archived from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  5. ^ "Siege of London, 12-15 May 1471". Military History Encyclopedia on the Web. 9 September 2007. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  6. ^ Kentish Rising section "The Wars of the Roses – Descriptions of Battles". Richard III Society. Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  7. ^ "Local statistics - Office for National Statistics". neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  8. ^ Churches in the Landscape, p217-221, Richard Morris, ISBN 0-460-04509-1
  9. ^ BHO source on the Moorfields area "Historical introduction: Moorfields". British History Online. 21 July 2021. pp. 88–90. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  10. ^ London's Hadrianic War? Dominic Perring
  11. ^ Victoria and Albert Museum https://www.vam.ac.uk/articles/sir-paul-pindars-house Archived 3 October 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ London Merchants and their residences gresham.ac.uk Archived 5 October 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ City of London Conservation Area https://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/assets/Services-Environment/bishopsgate-conservation-area-character-summary-management-strategy.pdf Archived 4 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Eppie Evans, The Influence of Foreignness, The Influence of 'Foreignness': How Immigration and Imported Commodities affected England https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/5774/1/Eppie__Evans_-_The_Influence_of_%27Foreignness%27.pdf Archived 14 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Management strategy cityoflondon.gov.uk Archived 4 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Recollections of the last half century, Mitchel, 1856
  17. ^ London Encyclopaedia, Weinreb and Hibbert, 1983
  18. ^ The legislation transferring additional areas to the City of London "The City and London Borough Boundaries Order 1993". legislation.gov.uk. 1 December 1993. Archived from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  19. ^ a b City of London Corporation Archived 12 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Ward boundary review 2010 (final recommendations) – see page 15
  20. ^ "Election results". City of London. Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  21. ^ The City of London-a history Borer, M.I.C. : New York, D.McKay Co, 1978 ISBN 0-09-461880-1.
  22. ^ Descriptions of cemetery site in adjacent Spitalfields gives extensive backgroundSudds, Berni; Douglas, Alistair; Phillpotts, Christopher. "EXCAVATIONS AT CRISPIN STREET, SPITALFIELDS: FROM ROMAN CEMETERY TO POST-MEDIEVAL ARTILLERY GROUND" (PDF). lamas.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  23. ^ London 800-1216: The Shaping of a City, Brook and Keir Ch 7
  24. ^ London 800-1216: The Shaping of a City, Brook and Keir. On p156-7 refers to William Pages discussion of the emergence of Wards but asserts the statements while valuable are unavoidably conjectural
  25. ^ Statements and conjecture passim from London, its origin and early development, William Page, 1923
  26. ^ London, its origin and early development, William Page, 1923, p176
  27. ^ See section called A HISTORY OF THE MANOR AND LIBERTY OF NORTON FOLGATE"A HISTORY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN SPITALFIELDS". Spitalfields Forum. Archived from the original on 7 February 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  28. ^ Wood 2003: 124-8
  29. ^ Thomas Birch, Memorials of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, vol. 1 (London, 1754), p. 173.
  30. ^ Weinreb and Hibbert (1983: 127)
  31. ^ Weinreb and Hibbert 1983: 586
  32. ^ Bosmajian, Haig A. "A RHETORICAL APPROACH TO THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO" (PDF). dalspace.library.dal.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 August 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  33. ^ De Baróid, Ciarán (2000). Ballymurphy And The Irish War. Pluto Press. p. 325. ISBN 0-7453-1509-7.

External links

7 Annotations

First Reading

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

Bishopsgate, one of the City gates, so called after Erkenwald, Bishop of London (d. 685), son of Offa, King of Mercia, by whom it was erected. The maintenance of the gate was considered to devolve upon the Bishop of London, though the chief burden came, in course of time, to be laid upon the Hanse merchants. ... The gate was rebuilt by the Hanse Merchants in 1471, and lasted till 1731, when, being greatly out of repair, it was taken down, and a much less ornamental gate erected in its place at the cost of the City.
---London, Past and Present. H.B. Wheatley, 1891.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

The White Hart (1246-2015) -- In 2011, permission was granted by the City of London to demolish all but the facade of old coaching inn, The White Hart of Bishopsgate, redesigned in 1610 by Inigo Jones.

In 2015 the pub shut for the last time to permit the construction of a nine storey cylindrical office block of questionable design, developed by Sir Alan Sugar’s company Amsprop. Thus passed The White Hart after more than seven centuries in Bishopsgate.

For pictures of the 17th century cellars and Inigo Jones' plans and photos of the brick tunnel through which the coaches ran, see
http://spitalfieldslife.com/2019/…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

For an incredible description of Bishopsgate, Within and Without, at the time of Shakespeare, describing buildings and inns most of which would have been known to Pepys (it was one of the few parts of the City of London which did not burn in 1666), read:

https://politicworm.com/backgroun…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

A Gresham College lecture on Bishopsgate and the great merchants' houses there, including Paul Pindar's house, Thomas Gresham's estate, and Crosby Hall (home of Catherine of Aragon, Thomas More, the Italian merchant Antonio Bonvisi and wealthy cloth merchant Richard Spencer, Richard III long before, and in the early 17th century, Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke).

Bishopsgate wasn't affected by the Great Fire, so some things survive, not always in their original locations. Great pictures and merchant histories.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Tuesday 15 September 1668

"Up mighty betimes, my wife and people, ..., by three o’clock, and I about five; and they before, and I after them, to the coach in Bishopsgate Street, which was not ready to set out."
https://www.pepysdiary.com/diary/…

Elizabeth, Mercer, Deb and Hewer were off to Cambridge; an early start was essential for this 64 mile, 2 day journey.
Interestingly, this is a different inn than the one used for going to Buckden, Cambridgeshire (close to Brampton).

The Bishopsgate was the London terminus of the Roman road, Ermine Street, (sometimes called the Old North Road) which connects London to Cambridge, Lincoln, and York
Bishopsgate Street had many coaching inns which accommodated passengers setting out on the Old North Road. They survived the Great Fire, and included the Angel, the Black Bull, the Dolphin, the Flower Pot, the Green Dragon, the Magpie and Punchbowl, the Catherine Wheel, the White Hart and the Wrestlers.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bis…

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Bishopsgate was one of the few parts of the City spared by the Great Fire.
Bishopsgate Street was lined with ancient taverns, used as points of departure and arrival for those travelling up and down the old Roman road north from the City of London.

The part inside the City wall was known as Bishopsgate Within and the part outside the wall was Bishopsgate Without, and beyond, where the muddy road widened, was known as Bishopsgate Street.

The taverns served as hotels, drinking and dining houses, breweries and stables, couriers and coach offices, places of business and of entertainment, and were such significant centers of commerce that they issued their own currency for use as change.

There is a vibrant graphic quality in these miniature token designs, delighting in combining hand-lettering and familiar imagery with an appealing utilitarian irregularity.

Long before universal literacy or the numbering of London streets, buildings were adorned with symbols and easily-recognizable images like those graven upon the front of these tokens. The reverse carries the date and initials of the owner that issued the token, who may latterly be identified from the vintners’ records.

Once, tavern tokens were unremarkable items of small monetary value, passed hand to hand without a second thought, but now these rare specimens are precious evidence of another life in another time, long ago in this place.

The article now features photos of tokens from the Bishopgate Inns of The Ship, The Beehive, the Mitre, the Flower Pot, the Helmet, the Read Lion Court, the Black Raven, the Sunne, the Lion Above a Stick of Candles, At The Sign of the Bore, the Half Moon Brewhouse, Edward Nourse Next The Bull In Bishopsgate Street, plus the White Heart at Bedlam and King’s Head, Spittlegate.

The White Hart is the lone tavern that has weathered the centuries to survive into the present era.

https://spitalfieldslife.com/2023…

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References

Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.

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