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Wikipedia

This text was copied from Wikipedia on 30 November 2022 at 6:01AM.

Ludgate
Ludgate Hollar.PNG
An old illustration of the gate circa 1650
General information
Town or cityLondon
CountryEngland
Coordinates51°30′50.3″N 0°06′08.2″W / 51.513972°N 0.102278°W / 51.513972; -0.102278Coordinates: 51°30′50.3″N 0°06′08.2″W / 51.513972°N 0.102278°W / 51.513972; -0.102278

Ludgate was the westernmost gate in London Wall. Of Roman origin, it was rebuilt several times and finally demolished in 1760. The name survives in Ludgate Hill, an eastward continuation of Fleet Street, Ludgate Circus and Ludgate Square.

Etymology

According to legend Ludgate is named after King Lud. The claim by the Norman-Welsh Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae that the gate was named after the ancient British Lud. Lud was said to be the brother of King Cassivelaunus but some folklorists think he is a manifestation of the god Nodens. There are other suggestions for the origins of the name, although none has been universally accepted. Later writers said it was derived from "flood gate" or "Fleet gate",[1] from "ludgeat", meaning "back gate" or "postern",[2] or from the Old English term "hlid-geat"[3][4][5][6][7] a common Old English compound meaning "postern" or "swing gate".[3][4][5][7]

History

Lud Gate and surrounding area in the sixteenth century (as imagined in 1895)

Ludgate is believed to have been one of four original gates in the Roman London Wall, work on which started in 190 AD.[8]

Ludgate in flames in 1666. Oil painting by anonymous artist, circa 1670.

Anti-royalist forces rebuilt the gate during the First Barons' War (1215–17) using materials recovered from the destroyed houses of Jews.[9] The gate was rebuilt about 1450 by a man called Foster who at one time was lodged in the debtor's prison over the gate. He eventually became Sir Stephen Foster, Lord Mayor of London. His widow, Agnes, renovated and extended Ludgate and the debtor's prison; the practice of making the debtors pay for their own food and lodging was also abolished. Her gift was commemorated by a brass wall plaque,[10] which read:

Devout souls that pass this way,

For Stephen Foster, late mayor, heartily pray;
And Dame Agnes, his spouse, to God consecrate,
That of pity this house made, for Londoners in Ludgate;
So that for lodging and water prisoners here nought pay,
As their keepers shall answer at dreadful doomsday![11]

In February 1554, Ludgate was the final setting of Wyatt's rebellion, when Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger arrived at the gate with part of his army numbering three or four hundred men. The gate was defended by Lord William Howard with the local militia, who refused entry to the rebels, causing them to retreat and later surrender.[12]

Ludgate was rebuilt in 1586 to the design of William Kerwin; niches in the facade were furnished with statues of Queen Elizabeth I and King Lud with his two sons;[13] these statues replaced medieval ones that had been defaced by Protestant iconoclasts during the reign of King Edward VI. The gateway was finally demolished in 1760 at the request of the local citizens.[12] It was still in use as a debtor's prison, so the inmates were transferred to the City workhouse in Bishopsgate.[14] The statues from the facade were preserved at the Church of St Dunstan-in-the-West in Fleet Street. When the church was rebuilt in 1831, they were sold and taken to Hertford Villa in Regent's Park, but were returned to the church in 1935. Elizabeth's statue now stands in a niche over the vestry door, while the others are inside the porch.[13]

Plaque marking the location of Ludgate

In literature

Ludd's Gate is mentioned in Bernard Cornwell's novel Sword Song, set during the reign of Alfred the Great.

Ludgate is mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. According to the pseudohistorical work[15][16] the name comes from the Welsh King King Lud, who he claims also gave his name to London.[17]

Ludgate is mentioned in Maria McCann's novel As Meat Loves Salt, set during the English Civil War.

Ludgate appears in Walter de la Mare's poem "Up and Down", from Collected Poems 1901–1918, Vol. II: Songs of Childhood, Peacock Pie, 1920.

References

  1. ^ Walter Thornbury (1878). "Ludgate Hill". Old and New London: Volume 1. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  2. ^ Bebbington, Gillian (1972). London Street Names. Batsford. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-7134-0140-0.
  3. ^ a b Charters of Abingdon Abbey, Volume 2,Susan E. Kelly, Published for the British Academy by Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-726221-X, pp.623-266
  4. ^ a b Geographical Etymology, Christina Blackie, pp.88
  5. ^ a b English Place-Name society, Volume 36, The University Press, 1962, pp.205
  6. ^ Middle English Dictionary, University of Michigan Press, 1998, ISBN 0-472-01124-3 pp. 972
  7. ^ a b An encyclopaedia of London, William Kent, Dent, 1951, pp.402
  8. ^ Ross, Cathy; Clark, John (2008). London: the illustrated history. London: Penguin Books / Museum of London. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-14-101159-2. OCLC 607246513.
  9. ^ Timbs, John (1855). Curiosities of London: Exhibiting the Most Rare and Remarkable Objects of Interest in the Metropolis. D. Bogue. p. 538.
  10. ^ Caroline M. Barron, 'Forster , Agnes (d. 1484)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 22 May 2017
  11. ^ William Harvey (1863). London Scenes and London People: Anecdotes, Reminiscences, and Sketches of Places, Personages, Events, Customs, and Curiosities of London City, Past and Present. W.H. Collingridge. p. 256.
  12. ^ a b Thornbury, Walter (1878). Old and New London: Volume I. London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin. pp. 220–233.
  13. ^ a b Matthews, Peter (2018). London's Statues and Monuments. Oxford: Shire Publications. p. 70. ISBN 978-1784422561.
  14. ^ Burwick, Frederick (2015). British Drama of the Industrial Revolution. Cambridge University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-1107111653.
  15. ^ Wright, Neil (1984). The Historia Regum Britannie of Geoffrey of Monmouth. Woodbridge, England: Boydell and Brewer. pp. xvii–xviii. ISBN 978-0-85991-641-7.
  16. ^ "...the Historia does not bear scrutiny as an authentic history and no scholar today would regard it as such.": Wright (1984: xxviii)
  17. ^ Ackroyd, Peter (2 December 2001). "London". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2008.

See also

6 Annotations

Bill  •  Link

Ludgate, one of the four ancient gates of the City, taken down November 1760, at the solicitation of the inhabitants of Farringdon Within and Farringdon Without . It stood immediately west of the church of St. Martin, Ludgate, between the church and the London Coffee-house. It is a popular notion that Ludgate takes its name from the mythical King Lud, by whom it was built sixty-six years before the birth of Christ . Dr. Edwin Freshfield supposes it to be derived from the word lode, a cut or drain into a larger stream.
---London, Past and Present. H.B. Wheatley, 1891.

Bill  •  Link

Ludgate, is situated 797 feet south of Newgate, and according to Geffry of Monmouth, took its name from King Lud; but as that historian has justly forfeited all credit among the learned, his assertion has no weight; for it is certain that the ancient Britons had no walled towns. The name of this gate is therefore with much greater propriety derived from its situation near the rivulet Flood, Flud, Vloet, Fleote or Fleet, which ran into Fleet Ditch.
The present gate was erected in the year 1586, with the statue of Queen Elizabeth on the west front, and those of the pretended King Lud, and his two sons Androgeus and Theomantius or Temanticus on the east.
---London and Its Environs Described. R. Dodsley, 1761.

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References

Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.

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