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St Bride's Church
Interior of the church, as viewed from the nave looking east towards the altar.
LocationLondon, EC4Y 8AU
DenominationChurch of England
Previous denominationCatholic
Heritage designationGrade I listed building
Architect(s)Sir Christopher Wren
RectorAlison Joyce

St Bride's Church is a Church of England church in Fleet Street in the City of London. Likely dedicated to Saint Bridget perhaps as early as the 6th century, the building's most recent incarnation was designed by Sir Christopher Wren in 1672, though Wren's original building was largely gutted by fire during the London Blitz in 1940 and then was faithfully reconstructed in the 1950s.

Due to its location in Fleet Street, it has a long association with journalists and newspapers. The church is a distinctive sight on London's skyline and is clearly visible from a number of locations. With its steeple standing 226 feet (69m) tall, it is the second highest of all Wren's church spires, with only St Paul's itself having a higher pinnacle.



The medieval church from the south, as it appears on the "Copperplate" map of London, surveyed between 1553 and 1559

St Bride's may be one of the most ancient churches in London, with worship perhaps dating back to the conversion of the Middle Saxons in the 7th century. It is believed that its name is derived from Bridget of Ireland, the patron saint of Ireland. It may have been founded by Irish monks, missionaries proselytising the English.[1] It is believed that the original church, founded around the 6th Century by Irish missionaries, is the only such celtic Irish founded church in the east of Britain.[2]

The present St Bride's is at least the seventh church to have stood on the site. Traditionally, it was founded by St Bridget in the sixth century.[3] Whether or not she founded it personally, the remnants of the first church appear to have significant similarities to a church of the same date in Kildare, Ireland.[4] The Norman church, built in the 11th century, was of both religious and secular significance; in 1210, King John held a parliament there. It was replaced by a larger church in the 15th century,[5]

St Bride's association with the newspaper business began in 1500, when Wynkyn de Worde set up a printing press next door. Until 1695, London was the only city in England where printing was permitted by law.[6]

Roanoke colony

In the late 1580s, Eleanor White, daughter to artist and explorer John White, was married in St Bride's to the tiler and bricklayer Ananias Dare. Their daughter, Virginia Dare, was to be the first English child born in North America. She was born on Roanoke Island on 18 August 1587: "Elenora, daughter to the governour and wife to Ananias Dare, one of the assistants, was delivered of a daughter in Roanoke".[7] The child was healthy and "was christened there the Sunday following, and because this childe was the first Christian borne in Virginia, she was named Virginia".[7] A modern bust of Virginia Dare stands near the font (one of the few survivals from the original church)[8] replacing an earlier monument which was stolen and has not been recovered.

Great Fire of London

St Bride's Church, 1824
St Bride's Church, 19th-century engraving
St Bride's Church, Fleet Street
St Bride's Church, 2008
St Bride's Church, St Bride's Avenue
St Bride's Church, Mayday Rooms

In the mid-17th century disaster struck. In 1665, the Great Plague of London killed 238 parishioners in a single week,[9] and in 1666, the following year, the church was completely destroyed during the Great Fire of London,[10] which burned much of the city.[11] After the fire, the old church was replaced by an entirely new building designed by Sir Christopher Wren, one of his largest and most expensive works, taking seven years to build.[12]

St Bride's was reopened on 19 December 1675. The famous spire was added later, in 1701–1703.[13] It originally measured 234 ft, but lost its upper eight feet to a lightning strike in 1764; this was then bought by the then owner of Park Place, Berkshire, where it still resides. The design utilises four octagonal stages of diminishing height, capped with an obelisk which terminates in a ball and vane.

Buried at St Bride's is Robert Levet (Levett), a Yorkshireman who became a Parisian waiter, then a "practicer of physick" who ministered to the denizens of London's seedier neighbourhoods. Having been duped into a bad marriage, the hapless Levet was taken in by the author Samuel Johnson who wrote his poem "On the Death of Mr. Robert Levet", eulogising his good friend and tenant of many years.[14] Also buried at St Bride's are the composer Sir William Leighton (d. 1622), organist and composer Thomas Weelkes (d. 1623) and the poet Richard Lovelace (d. 1658), as well as author Samuel Richardson (d. 1761)

The wedding cake is said to date back to 1703 when Thomas Rich, a baker's apprentice from Ludgate Hill, fell in love with the daughter of his employer and asked her to marry him. He wanted to make an extravagant cake, and drew on the design of St Bride's Church for inspiration.[15]

Second World War

On the night of 29 December 1940, during the Blitz of central London in the Second World War, the church was gutted by fire-bombs dropped by the Luftwaffe. That night 1,500 fires were started, including three major conflagrations, leading to a fire storm, an event dubbed the Second Great Fire of London, due to the enormous amount of damage caused. St Paul's Cathedral itself was only saved by the dedication of the London firemen who kept the fire away from the cathedral and the volunteer firewatchers of the St Paul's Watch who fought to keep the flames from firebombs on the roof from spreading. After the war, St Bride's was rebuilt at the expense of newspaper proprietors and journalists.

One fortunate and unintended consequence of the bombing was the excavation of the church's original 6th century Saxon foundations. Today, the crypt known as the Museum of Fleet Street is open to the public and contains a number of ancient relics, including Roman coins and medieval stained glass.[16] Post-war excavations also uncovered nearly 230 lead coffins with plaques dating from the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries, filled with the bones of parishioners; causes of death for most of them were found by the Museum of London.[17]

Modern era

Exterior of St Bride's Church from Fleet Street, with spire

The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.[18]

In September 2007 the former rector, Archdeacon the Venerable David Meara, announced a special appeal to raise £3.5 million to preserve the church's unique heritage[19] and in November 2007 Queen Elizabeth II was guest of honour at a service to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the restoration work necessary after the Second World War.[20]

In March 2012, the Inspire! appeal was launched to raise the at least £2.5m needed to repair the crumbling stonework of the church's famous spire.[17]

In March 2016 the wedding of Jerry Hall and Rupert Murdoch was celebrated at St Bride's.[21]



The choir in its present form (12 adult singers – 4 sopranos, 2 altos, 3 tenors and 3 basses) was established in time for the re-dedication service in 1957, and has remained more or less in this format ever since. The choir sings at two services each Sunday throughout the year (reducing to 8 singers during August) and also for numerous special services. The Director of Music is Robert Jones, and the Assistant Director of Music is Matthew Morley.


The organ was built by the John Compton Organ Company, and is arguably their finest work. It was ready for the rededication of the church in November 1957. It has recently been completely overhauled and cleaned by Keith Bance, who has carried out some modest tonal updating. This included remodelling the positive division, adding new mixture stops to the great and pedal divisions and the provision of a new Vox Humana for the solo division. These changes have further increased the resources of an already versatile instrument. The organ has four manuals, 98 speaking stops, close to 4,000 pipes, a multi-level capture system and the wind is provided by four blowing installations.


  • Henry Lightindollar 1696–1702
  • John Weldon 1702–1736
  • Samuel Howard 1736–1782
  • Richard Huddleston Potter 1782–1821
  • George Mather 1821–1854
  • Mr. Reynolds, from 1854
  • Ernest Kiver, from 1882
  • John D. Codner, until 1888 (later organist of St Davids Cathedral)
  • Edmund Hart Turpin 1888–1907
  • Herbert Townsend 1909–ca. 1921
  • Gordon Reynolds 1952–1965[22]
  • Robert Langston 1972–1988
  • Robert Harre-Jones, from 1988


St Bride's Church is noted as the site of the first ever full peal on twelve bells (5060 Grandsire Cinques), and is considered to be one of the first towers which had a diatonic ring of twelve bells.[23][24] Ten bells were cast for the church in 1710 by Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester, and were augmented to twelve in 1719 with the addition of two trebles. The 5th and 6th bells were recast by Samuel Knight of Holborn in 1736.[23]

All of the bells were destroyed on 29 December 1940 during the Blitz. After the war, a single bell cast by John Taylor & Co was placed in the tower, hung for full-circle ringing, but was never joined by any other bells. During the installation, the church and foundry made sure that it was sympathetic to a future 12-bell installation. It weighs 15 hundredweight in the key of F♯ , and would be the 10th of a new ring of 12 in D.[25][26]

Notable parishioners

Samuel Pepys, baptised at St Bride's

St Bride's has had a number of notable parishioners, including John Milton, John Dryden, and the diarist Samuel Pepys, who was baptized in the church.[27] Pepys buried his brother Tom in the church in 1664, but by this stage the vaults were so overcrowded that Pepys had to bribe the gravedigger to "justle together" the corpses in order to make room.[6] In 2009, Sir Clement Freud's funeral was held in the church.[28]

Notable burials in the churchyard


See also



  1. ^ Tucker, Tony (2006). The visitor's guide to the City of London churches. ISBN 978-0-9553945-0-8.
  2. ^ Kilraine, John (6 February 2023). "London church holds service in honour of St Brigid". RTÉ. Archived from the original on 23 March 2023. Retrieved 9 July 2023.
  3. ^ Weinreb, Ben (2008). The London Encyclopaedia. Pan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5.
  4. ^ "The City of London Churches: monuments of another age" Quantrill, E; Quantrill, M p56: London; Quartet; 1975
  5. ^ The diarist Samuel Pepys was christened here in 1633-"Pepys: the unequalled self" Tomalin,C: London, Viking, 2002 ISBN 0-670-88568-1
  6. ^ a b Dailey, Donna; Tomedi, John (2005). London. Infobase Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-4381-1555-9.
  7. ^ a b Milton, p.239
  8. ^ "The City Churches" Tabor, M. p68:London; The Swarthmore Press Ltd; 1917
  9. ^ Hatts, Leigh (2003). London City Churches. Bankside Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-9545705-0-7.
  10. ^ "The Survey of Building Sites in London after the Great Fire of 1666" Mills, P/ Oliver, J Vol I p43: Guildhall Library MS. 84 reproduced in facsimile, London, London Topographical Society, 1946
  11. ^ Pepys, Samuel (1987). The Shorter Pepys. ISBN 978-0-14-009418-3.
  12. ^ "The Old Churches of London" Cobb,G: London, Batsford, 1942
  13. ^ Bradley, Simon; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1998). London The City Churches. ISBN 978-0-300-09655-2.
  14. ^ John Heneage Jesse (1871). London Its Celebrated Characters and Remarkable Places. R. Bentley.
  15. ^ "London St Bride's Church inspired wedding cake tradition". Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  16. ^ Steves, Rick; Openshaw, Gene (2010). Rick Steves' London 2011. Avalon Travel Publishing. p. 237. ISBN 978-1-59880-697-7.
  17. ^ a b "Saving St. Bride's". Prospero: Books, arts and culture blog. The Economist. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  18. ^ Historic England. "Church of St Bride (1064657)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
  19. ^ Deadlines and lifelines at St Bride's: article by Clive Aslet in Daily Telegraph Weekend Section page W3, 22 September 2007 (Issue no 47, 370)
  20. ^ Event Details Archived 23 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ O'Carroll, Lisa; Slawson, Nicola (5 March 2016). "Marrying Rupert Murdoch is 'absolutely wonderful', says Jerry Hall". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  22. ^ Williams, Richard (26 May 1995). "OBITUARY : Professor Gordon Reynolds". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022.
  23. ^ a b "The Rings of Twelve - encyclopaedia of change ringing peals of 12 bells". Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  24. ^ "The Bells of St Bride's Fleet Street". Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  25. ^ "St Bride's, Fleet Street". Archived from the original on 17 September 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  26. ^ "Lost Rings - Section 'London, St. Bride'". The Rings of Twelve.
  27. ^ Olson, Donald (2004). Frommer's London from $90 a Day. Wiley. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-7645-5822-1.
  28. ^ "The funeral of Sir Clement Freud in London". The Guardian. 24 April 2009. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 January 2023.

Further reading

External links

51°30′50″N 00°06′1″W / 51.51389°N 0.10028°W / 51.51389; -0.10028

5 Annotations

First Reading

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

Bride's (St.), or, St. Bridget's, a church on the south side of Fleet Street, in the ward of Farringdon Without.

Then is the parish church of St. Bridges or Bride, of old time a small thing, which now remaineth to be the choir, but since increased with a large body and side-aisles towards the west, at the charges of William Venor, esquire, Warden of the Fleet, about the year 1480.—Stow, p. 147.

This church was destroyed in the Great Fire, and the present building, one of Sir C. Wren's architectural glories, was erected in its stead, and was ready for service in 1680...
---London, Past and Present. H.B. Wheatley, 1891.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

During the Great Plague of 1665, the Court of Charles II plus lawyers, merchants, doctors, and many clergy fled the city in fear. But the poor had to stay, and 2,111 people died in St. Bride’s parish (100,000 Londoners lost their lives – 20% of its population).
The vicar of St. Bride’s, Richard Peirson, chose to remain.
At the height of the plague in September 1665, Peirson buried 636 people within a month – 43 of them on a single day. The dead included two of his Churchwardens.
Peirson survived the plague, and he was succeeded as vicar in August 1666 by Paul Boston.

Two weeks later, another disaster occurred.
On 2 September 1666, fire broke out in the bakery of Thomas Farriner in Pudding Lane. Fanned by strong winds from the east, the fire spread rapidly. On 4 September 1666, the fire crossed the Fleet River and engulfed St Bride’s.
All that could be saved from the fire was some fused bell metal – some of which can be seen in the crypt.

Vicar Paul Boston left £50 in his Will to the church, which purchased new communion vessels that are still in use today.

The Great Fire of London destroyed 87 churches. Despite Wren’s conviction that only 39 were necessary to serve such a small area, St Bride’s was among the 51 churches rebuilt.
The £500 required as a deposit by Guildhall to launch the project was raised in a single month: a remarkable effort, given that most of the parishioners had lost homes and businesses in the disaster.

Joshua Marshall, the King’s Mason, was the main contractor. He was a parishioner and also worked with Wren on the Temple Bar and the Monument. One of his assistants was the young Nicholas Hawksmoor, who was to become a renowned architect himself.
Construction started in 1671 and progressed quickly as Wren had built a hostel for the workmen nearby on Fleet Street. The Old Bell Tavern is still there.

Built from Portland stone, the church cost, apart from the steeple, £11,430, making it the third most expensive of all of Wren’s churches. Wren built over the remains of the previous six churches, thus forming extensive crypts.

By 1674 the main structural work was complete, and a year later, the church finally reopened for worship on Sunday 19 December 1675. St Bride’s was one of the first post-fire churches ready for worship.
And Fleet Street was one of the first main roads to be substantially restored.
Shortly after opening, galleries were added along the sides of the west walls.

The year before St Bride’s steeple was originally finished, the Daily Courant became the first regular daily newspaper to be produced in this country. It was published on 11 March 1702, by Elizabeth Mallet, from rooms above the White Hart pub in Fleet Street.

Much more info and spectacular photos:…

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

According to this website, "Samuel Pepys was born in a house adjacent to St. Bride’s Church and was baptized there along with his 8 brothers and sisters. (You can see a blue plaque marking the house where he was born in Salisbury Court.) His mother had her own pew in the church, and his brother, Tom, was buried here."

Mrs. Pepys Snr. had her own pew at St. Brides? I think that means the Pepys were amongst the more wealthy families of the Parish. So father John must have been a successful tailor to the wealthy ... or Mrs. Pepys was more of a cleaning contractor than a cleaning lady (on her own knees).

Lovely pictures of St. Bride's as well as more history about this Wren church:…

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.







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