The overlays that highlight 17th century London features are approximate and derived from Wenceslaus Hollar’s maps:

Open location in Google Maps: 49.214439, -2.131250

4 Annotations

First Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Jersey, officially the Bailiwick of Jersey, French: Bailliage de Jersey, is a British Crown Dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. As well as the island of Jersey itself, the bailiwick includes two groups of small islands that are no longer permanently inhabited, the Minquiers and Écréhous, and the Pierres de Lecq and other rocks and reefs.

Jersey is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial, legal and judicial systems.

The island of Jersey is the largest of the Channel Islands. Although the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey are often referred to collectively as 'the Channel Islands', they are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey has a separate relationship to the British Crown from the other Crown Dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man. It is not part of the United Kingdom, and has an international identity separate from that of the UK but the United Kingdom is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey.

During the 16th century the islanders adopted the Protestant religion and life became very austere. The increasing use of gunpowder on the battlefield meant that the fortifications on the island had to be adapted and a new fortress built to defend St Aubin's Bay. The new Elizabeth Castle was named after the queen by Sir Walter Raleigh when he was governor.

The production of knitwear reached such a scale that it threatened the island's ability to produce its own food and so laws were passed regulating who could knit with whom and when. The islanders also became involved with the Newfoundland fisheries at this time. During the 1640s England was split by Civil War and hostilities spread into Scotland and Ireland as well. Jersey was divided and while the sympathy of islanders lay with Parliament the de Carterets held the island for the king.

The future Charles II visited the island in 1646 and again in 1649 following the execution of his father. It was in the Royal Square in St. Helier on February 17, 1649 that Charles was publicly proclaimed king after his father's death (following the first public proclamation in Edinburgh on February 5, 1649). Parliamentarian forces eventually captured the island in 1651. In recognition for all the help given to him during his exile, Charles II gave George Carteret, Bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named New Jersey, now part of the United States of America.

Towards the end of the 17th century Jersey strengthened its links with the Americas when many islanders emigrated to New England and north east Canada. The Jersey merchants built up a thriving business empire in the Newfoundland and Gaspé fisheries.…

Second Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

During the early Diary years the Governor of Jersey was the Earl of St Albans. He gave up the position in 1665, and Charles II sent Sir Thomas Morgan as the new Governor, and on 10 December, 1665 he arrived in Jersey, and took up his appointment.…

Sir Thomas was the uncle of Henry Morgan, the pirate/privateer of Caribbean fame, and had an exciting career as a Parliamentary/Commonwealth officer, which you can read about at…

He's described as a Welsh soldier who fought for Parliament throughout the civil wars and led English troops in Flanders.
Elsewhere he's described as being of short stature, with an explosive temper and distinctive high-pitched voice, But Morgan was popular with his troops. He was almost illiterate, but was praised as a courageous, loyal and efficient officer by Monck.

In April 1657, Major-Gen. Morgan was appointed second-in-command to Sir John Reynolds in the English force sent to co-operate with the French army against the Spaniards in Flanders.
After Reynolds' death in Dec, 1657, Major-Gen. Morgan was appointed governor of Mardyke, but was considered too blunt and argumentative to take overall command of the English contingent in the Anglo-French army, where diplomacy was needed to deal with the French commanders.

Sir William Lockhart, Cromwell's ambassador to France, was appointed commander, and Gov. Morgan bore a lasting grudge against Lockhart, and attempted to thwart his plans.

Morgan led the successful attack on Spanish forts around Gravelines in April 1658, and commanded the victorious English contingent at the battle of the Dunes on 4 June, 1658.
James, Duke of York was present at the Battle of the Dunes and left an account of the courage of Cromwell's Ironsides serving, 'at push of pike', with the French. 'Not so much as one single man of them ask'd quarter, or threw down his arms, but every one defended himself to the last; so that we ran as great danger by the butt end of their muskets as by the volley which they had given us.'

After the surrender of Dunkirk to the English on 25 June 1658, Major-Gen. Morgan led the 4 English regiments that continued to serve with the French army throughout the summer of 1658.

Upon Major-Gen. Morgan's return to England in November 1658, he was knighted for his services by the new Lord Protector, Richard Cromwell.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


Sir Thomas Morgan returned to Scotland as Gen. George Monck's deputy in 1659 and supported Monck during the political maneuvering that brought about the Restoration in 1660, keeping command of the army in Scotland while Monck marched on London.

Sir Thomas Morgan was granted a baronetcy by Charles II in February 1661 and commanded the infantry in the English expeditionary force to assist the Portuguese against Spain in 1662,

Sir Thomas Morgan, Bart. was appointed governor of Jersey in 1665 and fortified Elizabeth Castle while keeping a keen eye on the French all the time. But he was a man of action and got into trouble with the governance of the Island. Lots of stories about him at…

He remained Governor of Jersey for 13 years, dying at St. Helier in April 1679.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Jersey: Mont Orgueil Through Time (2021-1680)
A look at the imposing Gorey Castle in the Jersey Islands through time.

Mount Orgueil was the home of the Governor of Jersey until 1600 ... he lived in the Keep. When attack threatened, the inhabitants of the island took shelter here; you can see why.
A fascinating look back through the ages.…

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.