Sunday 26 August 1660

(Lord’s day). With Sir W. Pen to the parish church, where we are placed in the highest pew of all, where a stranger preached a dry and tedious long sermon. Dined at home. To church again in the afternoon with my wife; in the garden and on the leads at night, and so to supper and to bed.

15 Annotations

First Reading

Paul Brewster  •  Link

Somehow Wheatley got the last two sentences of this short entry confused
Per L&M: "Dined at home, and with my wife to church again in the afternoon. Home again and walked in the garden and on the leads till night; and so to supper and to bed."

Paul Brewster  •  Link

per L&M Select Glossary "Leads: flat space on roof top, sometimes boarded over and leaded".

see our previous discussion…

chip  •  Link

This week Pepys gets the best seat, but the sermon is dry! It would appear morning service is men dominated. Pepys always mentions accompanying Elizabeth to service in the afternoons. It seems a lazy August day...

Podsnap  •  Link

"On the leads". I didn't know that this practise went so far back. I remember people sitting on the flat parts of their roofs in the evening, away from the noise and bustle of what was going on down below.

vincent  •  Link

Oh! well! stargazing! 'tis better to watch the skulls(on the river even tho it's their day off) than to be driven out of one's skull, by a nice boring sermon.(still better than being on the tyles, being a wee good laddy, no nice bonnets to admire)

Roger Arbor  •  Link

Nice to see Samuel getting the benefit of the carpenter's work of 18 July, when the "door to the leads" was built. These roofplace 'retreats' are very much in evidence all over the place in the City...but usually these days with a garden. Next to the Tower Gateway 'Docklands's Light Railway' station is a roofplace bowling green; bit of a surprise when you first see it!

gerry  •  Link

Sunning,partying or even sleeping on the leads is still very much a part of New York culture. Except that nowadays people call it "Tar Beach".

diphi  •  Link

I am curious about the pronunciation of the word "leads" referring to rooftop spaces.

Does it rhyme with "heads" or "heeds?"

Paul Brewster  •  Link

According to the OED, it rhymes with "heads".

john lauer  •  Link

-- as natural as 'pencil leads'.

Second Reading

Chris Squire UK  •  Link

OED explains:

‘lead, n. Pronunciation: /lɛd/ . Etym: Old English léad . .
1. a. The heaviest of the base metals, of a dull pale bluish-gray colour, fusible at a low temperature, and very useful from its softness and malleability. Chemical symbol Pb . .
. . 7. pl. a. The sheets or strips of lead used to cover a roof; often collect. for a lead flat, a lead roof . .
1578–9 in R. Willis & J. W. Clark Archit. Hist. Univ. Cambr. (1886) I. 538 Mending the leddes over the librarie chambers.
. .1625 Bacon Ess. (new ed.) 261 A Goodly Leads upon the Top, railed with Statua's interposed.
. . 1761 C. Johnstone Chrysal (ed. 2) I. ii. xviii. 231 A cat..whom she used to meet in the evenings, upon the leads of the house . . ‘

Third Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Rev. Ralph: "... Dr. Pullein now an Archbishop being to remove from us, occasioned great feastings, which are vain tainting things to our minds, god in some measure abased my heart(,) ..."

Samuel Pullen (also Pullein and Pulleyne) (1598–1667)
... On the outbreak of the Catholic rebellion in October 1641, Pullen, who was living in Cashel, Tipperary, was plundered of all his goods, to the value of 4,000/. or 5,000/.s, and, with his wife and children, only escaped murder by the protection of a Jesuit father ... who sheltered him for 3 months. On his escape to England, Pullen became chaplain to Aubrey de Vere, 20th Earl of Oxford. ... [INTERESTING BUT IRRELEVANT STORY]

Pullen was collated on 28 October, 1642, to a prebend in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin which he held until the Restoration*, when he was incorporated D.D. of Dublin, and, through the Duke of Ormonde's** influence, elevated to the see of Tuam, with that of Kilfenoragh (19 January, 1661). ...
For the complete entry see…

* Which means OFFICIALLY Pullen was a prebend at Protestant St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin for the duration of the Civil Wars, but as he had been run out of Ireland he was really employed by Aubrey de Vere, 20th Earl of Oxford (1627 – 1703) and his first wife, Anne Bayning de Vere, Countess of Oxford (died 1659).
** This is August 1660, so James Butler is the Marquis of Ormonde. He's elevated to the 1st Duke on 30 March, 1661, after Pullen has left for Tuam.

The question is why [Presbyterian] Josselin and his parishoners in rural Essex were so delighted to hear [CofI] Pullen was going back to Ireland.

Castle Hedingham turns out to be about 8 miles away from Earls Colne.
Heningham had been in the De Vere family since the 11th century. "After the death of Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, Henry VII returned Hedingham to the de Veres in the person of Lancastrian supporter John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford. In 1713 the castle was purchased by William Ashhurst; after his death in 1720, ..." So the 20th Earl owned it during the Interregnum.…

My guess therefore is that Aubrey and Anne Bayning de Vere, 20th Earl and Countess of Oxford were living at Hedingham Castle with their chaplain, Samuel Pullen. Pullen was probably speaking out firmly about the return of the Church of England and the mandatory use of the Book of Common Prayer.
That would upset the local Essex citizens.

SPOILER: Pullen leaving for Ireland isn't going to bring any relief to them. Party on, folks.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Rev. Ralph tells us George Monck, Duke of Albemarle has just been made the Lord Lt. of Ireland. He was a Devonian, but had travelled far under Cromwell:

Skipping over the first third of his Irish biography:
In Sept. 1647, Monck became Parliament's Major General in Ulster.
He had an uneasy relationship with the Scottish troops stationed there under Robert Monro, and based himself at Dundalk.
As relations between England and the Scots soured, Monck struck against the demoralised Scots at Carrickfergus on 16 Sept. 1648, capturing Monro.
The other Scottish garrisons surrendered bringing Ulster under Parliament's control.

But many Protestant commanders in Ulster retained Royalist sympathies and the Presbytery at Lisburn regarded him warily.
The execution of King Charles in Jan. 1649 provoked a general rising in Ulster against Parliament, forcing Monck, starved of supplies, to retreat to Dundalk.
Meanwhile, James Burtler, Earl of Ormonde, had secured the support of the Catholic confederates for the Royalist cause. The major exception was the Ulster army commanded by Owen Roe O'Neill, who, desperately short of supplies and munitions, wrote to Monck in March proposing a cessation of hostilities.
Monck reacted cautiously but perceived that such an agreement would both deepen the rift between Ormonde and O'Neill and buy him time.
After receiving vague directions from Westminster, Monck concluded an agreement for a 3-month cessation on 8 May.
He kept this agreement a secret from nearly all his men and his dispatch to London stressed the cessation was the result of extreme military necessity.
Under the terms of this truce, both sides agreed to help the other if either was attacked by Royalists; they also agreed to maintain each other's cattle and Monck pledged to share any supplies he received from England with O'Neill.

In July, as Royalist forces advanced on Dundalk, Monck contacted O'Neill who agreed to help defend Dundalk in exchange for munitions.
Monck camped about 7 miles from the town and sent a detachment to collect the ammunition. But these men became drunk in Dundalk.
The Royalists were informed of their condition and ambushed them after they left the town, seizing the munitions intended for O'Neill, who was forced to withdraw.

A now-isolated Monck had to withstand a Royalist siege.
Worse still, having seen O'Neill's troops collect the munitions, his men were horrified that their commander would ally himself with Irish Catholics.
After a 2-day siege, they mutinied and forced Monck to surrender Dundalk on 17 July, 1649.

Monck was permitted to return to England. One of his officers arranged for Monck's correspondence with O'Neill to be published in London, much to the consternation of the republican regime.
The Council of State, who had known about and tacitly accepted the truce, now distanced itself and Monck was obliged to accept full responsibility; he was formally censured in parliament.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link


Monck's discretion was appreciated, and after a year, he was recalled to play prominent roles in both the conquest of Scotland and the first Anglo- Dutch War (1652–3);

Monck was made the military governor of Scotland in 1654.

Monck received nearly 20,000 acres of land in Wexford under the Cromwellian plantations.

So when the republic collapsed in 1659–60, Monck took the initiative, leading his troops down to London from Scotland to restore order and, after considering his options, declared for the Restoration of the monarchy.

Throughout his careful progression, Monck kept in close touch with the leaders of the successful coup mounted in Ireland in December 1659, encouraged their efforts to consolidate their position, and used his influence on their behalf in London.
[Having secured power at the end of 1659, a group of Cromwellian army officers, Sir Theophilus Jones, Sir Charles Coote, and Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill opened negotiations with Charles II before Monck did.]

It was to Monck, in his role as Commander-in-Chief of all the forces of the Commonwealth, that the army in Ireland addressed its guarded acceptance of the Restoration on 7 May, 1660.
Fittingly, Monck's rewards for the services he had rendered were drawn from Ireland as well as England.

George Monck was knighted on 25 May, 1660,
on 7 July he was created Duke of Albemarle and endowed with a huge pension and extensive tracts of land (including around 3,500 acres in Connacht, mainly in Mayo).
His Irish lands alone were worth £4,000 a year.

Finally, Monck was made Lord Lt. of Ireland in August, 1660, but he had no interest in going to Dublin. He did try to influence Irish policy, which immediately led to a clash with Ormonde about the contours of the Restoration settlement in Ireland.
In opposition to Ormonde and others, Monck counselled moderation towards the defeated Puritan interest, but not so forcefully as to imperil his own political and financial prospects.

SPOILER: By 1661, Monck pushed successfully for Ormonde to replace him as Lord Lt. as he believed only the now Duke had the requisite standing to bring about a durable land settlement in Ireland, thereby provide Monck with a secure title to his extensive Irish property holdings.

For more see…

Another case of former enemies coming together for their own mutual benefit -- they didn't even try to solve Ireland's problems which had been amplified by Cromwell's and Charles II's gifts.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Anne Bayning de Vere, Countess of Oxford (died 1659). So she couldn't be living at Hedingham Castle now. Sorry.

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