The overlays that highlight 17th century London features are approximate and derived from Wenceslaus Hollar’s maps:

Open location in Google Maps: -4.515543, 129.865200


This was an island in what are now the Banda Islands which, I think, are part of Indonesia. Here is a close-up map. Maybe Pulo Run is present-day Rhun.

5 Annotations

First Reading

Wim van der Meij  •  Link

Poleron is one of the Banda Islands, which had acknowledged James I as its sovereign but was afterwards forcibly seized by the Dutch. (Warrington)

Pedro  •  Link


Pulo Run should have been handed back after the Peace Treaty of the First Dutch War in 1654.
Poleron is usually referred to as Pulo Run. One of the two small islands to the west of the main island in the Banda Islands, along with Pulo Ay. They later may be known as Rhun and Ai, or Run an Ay.
See ancient map...…

The fascinating story of Pulo Run is included in the site below, with the equally fascinating story of The First Russian Students in England by Cathi Szulinski.

"The Oran Kayas of Ay and Run had voluntarily granted sovereignty over their land to King James I of England. These pocket- handkerchief islands were some of the first far-flung corners of the globe to call themselves 'English soil', and it had been done to prevent, rather than as a result of, bloodshed.

Pulo Run is a small, rocky island some two miles long and three quarters of a mile across at its widest point. Midway between its two precipitous extremities lies a small natural harbour, but apart from this, its steep cliffs and dangerous reefs make it an easy place to defend. Its great demerit, however, was that there was no fresh water and no food grown on the island - apart, that is, from seven hundred acres of nutmeg. Without supplies, no defence would be possible. The island, with its sole safe landing-spot, was extremely ill- equipped to withstand a blockade.…

Further information from various sources...

In the Peace Treaty of April 5th 1654 for the First Dutch War the verdict of the arbitrators had adjudged Pulo Run to England. The new treaty promised that the long-delayed transfer should be affected; but when one of the ships of the English East India Company arrived with authority to take possession the Dutch Governor refused to give it up. Besides this breach of faith, there were fresh complaints of the capture of English ships in the East Indies and the forcible obstruction of English traders in West Africa. The Dutch were deliberately retaining their monopoly by destroying the nutmeg trees on the Island.

In October I660 the East India Company petitioned the King to examine the question of Pulo Run, which had never been surrendered.

Charles in January 1661 authorized the Company to occupy the island, and an expedition sailed in the Spring. The Dutch refused to hand over and were determined to make Pulo Run their lever to extort other concessions against the "pretentions" of the British in any further treaty.

The Treaty of September 1662 left two outstanding questions, one still being the restoration of Pulo Run.

Terry F  •  Link

"Until the early seventeenth century the Banda's were ruled by a group of leading citizens, the orang kaya (literally 'rich men'), each of these was a head of district."…

Pedro  •  Link

For more on Pulo Run...

Posted by steve h under Nutmeg background.

( of "Nathaniel's Nutmeg: Or the True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader Who Changed the Course of History" by Giles Milton (1999, Farrar, Straus and Giroux):

This book gives a more detailed story of the events in Pulo Run described in the site mentioned for Cathi Szulinski. It also gives a good description, somewhat gory at times, of the history of the English and Dutch East India Companies during their time in wider East Indies.

(In the UK it can be obtained for as little as 50p plus postage!)

Second Reading

Terry Foreman  •  Link

Run (also known as Pulau Run, Pulo Run, Puloroon, or Rhun[1]) is one of the smallest islands of the Banda Islands, which are a part of Moluccas, Indonesia. According to historian John Keay, Run is comparable in its significance in the history of the English overseas possessions as Runnymede is to British constitutional history. In the 17th century, Run was of great economic importance because of the value of the spices nutmeg and mace which are obtained from the nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans), once found exclusively in the Banda Islands of which Run is one.…

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.