The overlays that highlight 17th century London features are approximate and derived from Wenceslaus Hollar’s maps:

Open location in Google Maps: 49.494370, 0.107929

2 Annotations

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

"Le Havre was only a fishing village until 1517, when Francis I had a harbour built there was named Havre-de-Grâce (“Haven of Grace”).

"Enlarged and fortified under the Cardinal de Richelieu and Louis XIV in the 17th century, it was adapted to accommodate bigger vessels under Louis XVI in the late 18th century …"

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

By the end of the 17th century, Havre de Grace was a strategic and important port, on a par with London and Amsterdam:

"The first [NAVIGATION] schools in northwestern Europe popped up near the docks in Amsterdam, Le Havre and London [AT THE END OF THE 17TH CENTURY]. They were run by ambitious entrepreneurs who wore multiple hats: some of them invented new instruments or wrote introductory textbooks, all of which they hoped to sell to their students. Some [OF THE ENTREPRENEURS] were mariners, but most had virtually no experience at sea. Still, they harnessed the power of the printing press, and instruments galore, to help teach new mathematical concepts.

"A master or navigator (pilote in French, piloto in Spanish, stuurluy in Dutch) earned three times as much as an able seaman, and many would eventually secure commissions as captains. Sailors flocked to the classroom to learn the terms that would have been familiar to university students studying cosmography."…

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.


  • Feb