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Charles Howard
The Earl of Carlisle.
Member of Parliament for Cumberland
In office
Member of Parliament for Cumberland
In office
High Sheriff of Cumberland
In office
Personal details
Born1628 (1628)
Died24 February 1685 (aged 56–57)
SpouseAnne Howard
Children6, including Edward
Military career
AllegianceGreat Britain
Commands heldBlackheath Army
Battles/warsBattle of Worcester

Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle (1628 – 24 February 1685) was an English military leader and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1653 and 1660 and was created Earl of Carlisle in 1661.


Howard was the son and heir of Sir William Howard[1] of Naworth in Cumberland, by Mary, daughter of William Eure, 4th Baron Eure and great-grandson of Lord William Howard, "Belted Will" (1563–1640), the third son of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk.[2] In 1645 he conformed to the Church of England and supported the government of the Commonwealth, being appointed High Sheriff of Cumberland in 1650. He bought Carlisle Castle and became governor of the town. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Worcester on Oliver Cromwell's side and made a member of the council of state in 1653, chosen captain of the protector's bodyguard and selected to carry out various public duties.[3] In 1653 he was nominated as Member of Parliament for the Four Northern Counties in the Barebones Parliament. He was elected MP for Cumberland in 1654.[2]

In 1655 Howard was given a regiment, was appointed a commissioner to try the northern rebels, and a deputy major-general of Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland. He was re-elected MP for Cumberland in 1656.[2] In 1657 he was included in Cromwell's House of Lords and voted for the protector's assumption of the royal title the same year. In 1659 he urged Richard Cromwell to defend his government by force against the army leaders, but his advice being refused he used his influence in favour of a restoration of the monarchy, and after Richard's fall he was imprisoned. In April 1660 he sat again in parliament for Cumberland, and at the Restoration was made custos rotulorum and Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland and Lord Lieutenant of Westmorland.[3][2]

On 20 April 1661 Howard was created Baron Dacre of Gillesland, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, and Earl of Carlisle; the same year he was made Vice-Admiral of Northumberland, Cumberland and Durham, and in 1662 joint commissioner for the office of Earl Marshal. In 1663 he was appointed ambassador to Russia, Sweden and Denmark, and in 1668 he carried the Garter to Charles XI of Sweden.[3]

In 1667 Howard was made lieutenant-general of the forces and joint commander-in-chief of the four northernmost counties. In 1672 he became one of the commissioners for the office of Lord Lieutenant of Durham, and in 1673 deputy earl marshal.[3] He commanded a regiment in the fresh-raised Blackheath Army of 1673, which was intended to see action against the Dutch. Following the Treaty of Westminster the regiment was disbanded.

In 1678 he was appointed governor of Jamaica, but his instructions to introduce Poynings' Law to the island were successfully opposed by planters elected to the Jamaican Assembly. Calling the elected members "fools, asses, beggars and cowards", the governor arrested their leaders, William Beeston (governor) and Samuel Long, father of Jamaican planter-historian Edward Long. However, when they were deported back to England, Beeston and Long successfully argued their case, and the governor's instructions were cancelled.[4] He was reappointed governor of Carlisle. He died in 1685, and was buried in York Minster.


He married Anne (died 1696), daughter of Edward Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Escrick and great-granddaughter of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, by whom he had six children:

Colonel Thomas Howard (died 1678), notorious for the 1662 duel where he left Henry Jermyn, 1st Baron Dover for dead (they were rivals for the affections of Anna Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury), was his younger brother. He was pardoned and soon afterwards married as her third husband Mary Stewart, Duchess of Richmond.[5]


  1. ^ William Howard of Naworth
  2. ^ a b c d History of Parliament Online – Howard, Charles
  3. ^ a b c d One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Carlisle, Earls of". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 340.
  4. ^ C.V. Black, A History of Jamaica (London: Collins, 1975), pp. 72-3.
  5. ^ Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 August 1662

2 Annotations

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

Charles Howard, earl of Carlisle, had a considerable share in the Restoration; and was, in his capacity of a public minister, well qualified to do honour to the king his master, and himself. In 1663, he was sent ambassador to the czar of Muscovy, to recover the privileges of the Russian company. He met with no success in this embassy; but, on the contrary, was treated with disregard, and even indignity, which he resented with a proper spirit. He afterwards went in quality of ambassador to Sweden and Denmark, to cultivate the alliance with these kingdoms. There is an account of the three embassies in print, with the earl's portrait prefixed. This book contains many curious remarks upon the countries through which he passed. He was afterwards appointed governor of Jamaica. He died, according to Heylin, in 1684; according to others, in 1686.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1779.

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Since he lived in Carlisle Castle, a review of the history of the town is in order:

"Following the personal union of the crowns Carlisle Castle should have become obsolete as a frontier fortress, but the two kingdoms continued as separate states.
In 1639, with war between the two kingdoms looming, the castle was refortified using stone from the cathedral cloisters.
In 1642 the English Civil War broke out and the castle was garrisoned for the king. It endured a long siege from October 1644 until June 1645 when the Royalist forces surrendered after the Battle of Naseby.
The city was occupied by a parliamentary garrison, and subsequently by their Scots allies.
In 1646, the Scots, now holding Carlisle pending payment of monies owed them by the English Parliament, improved its fortifications, destroying the cathedral's nave to obtain the stone to rebuild the castle.
Carlisle continued to remain a barracks thereafter.
In 1698 travel writer Celia Fiennes wrote of Carlisle as having most of the trappings of a military town and was rife with alcohol and prostitutes.
In 1707 an act of union was passed between England and Scotland, creating Great Britain, and Carlisle ceased to be a frontier town. Carlisle remained a garrison town.
The tenth, and most recent siege in the city's history took place after Charles Edward Stuart took Carlisle in the Jacobite Rising of 1745. When the Jacobites retreated across the border to Scotland they left a garrison of 400 men in Carlisle Castle. Ten days later Prince William, Duke of Cumberland took the castle and executed 31 Jacobites on the streets of Carlisle."…

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.