's-Hertogenbosch is a contraction of the Dutch des Hertogen bosch—"the Duke's Forest")—translated in French as Bois-le-Duc, in German as Herzogenbusch, in Spanish as Bolduque, in Italian as Boscoducale and in Latin Silva Ducis—is a municipality in the Netherlands.
The duke in question was Henry I, Duke of Brabant, whose family had owned a large estate at nearby Orthen for at least four centuries. He founded a new town located on some forested dunes in the middle of a marsh.
Until 1520, the city flourished, becoming the second largest population centre in the territory of the present Netherlands, after Utrecht. The birthplace and home of one of the greatest painters of the northern Renaissance, Hieronymus Bosch, the city was also a center of music, and composers, such as Jheronimus Clibano, received their training at its cathedrals.
The wars of the Reformation changed the course of the city's history. It became an independent bishopric. During the Eighty Years' War, the city took the side of the Habsburg (Catholic) authorities and thwarted a Calvinist coup. It was besieged several times by Prince Maurice of Orange, stadtholder of Holland, who wanted to bring 's-Hertogenbosch under the rule of the rebel United Provinces. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%27s…