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Michel de Nostredame
Nostradamus by Cesar.jpg
Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar
Born 14 December or 21 December 1503 (Julian calendar)
Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Provence, France
Died 2 July 1566(1566-07-02) (aged 62)
Salon-de-Provence, Provence, France
Occupation Physician, author, translator, astrological consultant
Known for Prophecy, treating plague
Signature of Nostradamus.jpg

Michel de Nostredame (depending on the source, 14 or 21 December 1503 – 2 July 1566), usually Latinised as Nostradamus,[1] was a French physician and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become widely famous. He is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555. Since the publication of this book, which has rarely been out of print since his death, Nostradamus has attracted a following that, along with much of the popular press, credits him with predicting many major world events.[2][3] Most academic sources maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus's quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations (sometimes deliberate) or else are so vague as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power.[4]

Nostredame's claimed birthplace before its recent renovation, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence


Municipal plaque on the claimed birthplace of Nostradamus in St-Rémy, France, describing him as an 'astrologer' and giving his birth-date as 14 December 1503 (Julian Calendar)

Born on either 14 or 21 December 1503 in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Provence, France, where his claimed birthplace still exists, Michel de Nostredame was one of at least nine children of notary Jaume (or Jacques) de Nostredame and Reynière, granddaughter of Pierre de Saint-Rémy who worked as a physician in Saint-Rémy. Jaume's family had originally been Jewish, but his father, Cresquas, a grain and money dealer based in Avignon, had converted to Catholicism around 1459-60, taking the Christian name "Pierre" and the surname "Nostredame" (Our Lady), the saint on whose day his conversion was solemnised.[5] The earliest ancestor who can be identified on the paternal side is Astruge of Carcassonne, who died about 1420. Michel's known siblings included Delphine, Jean (c. 1507–77), Pierre, Hector, Louis, Bertrand, Jean II (born 1522) and Antoine (born 1523).[6][7][8] Little else is known about his childhood, although there is a persistent tradition that he was educated by his maternal great-grandfather Jean de St. Rémy[9] — a tradition which is somewhat undermined by the fact that the latter disappears from the historical record after 1504, when the child was only one year old.[10]

Student years

At the age of 15[2] Nostredame entered the University of Avignon to study for his baccalaureate. After little more than a year (when he would have studied the regular trivium of grammar, rhetoric and logic rather than the later quadrivium of geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy/astrology), he was forced to leave Avignon when the university closed its doors during an outbreak of the plague. After leaving Avignon, Nostredame, by his own account, traveled the countryside for eight years from 1521 researching herbal remedies. In 1529, after some years as an apothecary, he entered the University of Montpellier to study for a doctorate in medicine. He was expelled shortly afterwards by the student procurator, Guillaume Rondelet, when it was discovered that he had been an apothecary, a "manual trade" expressly banned by the university statutes, and had been slandering doctors.[11] The expulsion document, BIU Montpellier, Register S 2 folio 87, still exists in the faculty library.[12] However, some of his publishers and correspondents would later call him "Doctor". After his expulsion, Nostredame continued working, presumably still as an apothecary, and became famous for creating a "rose pill" that purportedly protected against the plague.[13]

Marriage and healing work

Nostradamus's house at Salon-de-Provence, as reconstructed after the 1909 Lambesc earthquake

In 1531 Nostredame was invited by Jules-César Scaliger, a leading Renaissance scholar, to come to Agen.[14] There he married a woman of uncertain name (possibly Henriette d'Encausse), who bore him two children.[15] In 1534 his wife and children died, presumably from the plague. After their deaths, he continued to travel, passing through France and possibly Italy.[16]

On his return in 1545, he assisted the prominent physician Louis Serre in his fight against a major plague outbreak in Marseille, and then tackled further outbreaks of disease on his own in Salon-de-Provence and in the regional capital, Aix-en-Provence. Finally, in 1547, he settled in Salon-de-Provence in the house which exists today, where he married a rich widow named Anne Ponsarde, with whom he had six children—three daughters and three sons.[17] Between 1556 and 1567 he and his wife acquired a one-thirteenth share in a huge canal project organised by Adam de Craponne to irrigate largely waterless Salon-de-Provence and the nearby Désert de la Crau from the river Durance.[18]


After another visit to Italy, Nostredame began to move away from medicine and toward the "occult," although evidence suggests that he remained a Roman Catholic and was opposed to the Protestant Reformation.[19] But it seems he could have dabbled in horoscopes, necromancy, scrying, and good luck charms such as the hawthorn rod.[20][21] Following popular trends, he wrote an almanac for 1550, for the first time Latinising his name from Nostredame to Nostradamus. He was so encouraged by the almanac's success that he decided to write one or more annually. Taken together, they are known to have contained at least 6,338 prophecies,[22][23] as well as at least eleven annual calendars, all of them starting on 1 January and not, as is sometimes supposed, in March. It was mainly in response to the almanacs that the nobility and other prominent persons from far away soon started asking for horoscopes and "psychic" advice from him, though he generally expected his clients to supply the birth charts on which these would be based, rather than calculating them himself as a professional astrologer would have done. When obliged to attempt this himself on the basis of the published tables of the day, he frequently made errors and failed to adjust the figures for his clients' place or time of birth.[24][25][a][26]

He then began his project of writing a book of one thousand mainly French quatrains, which constitute the largely undated prophecies for which he is most famous today. Feeling vulnerable to opposition on religious grounds,[27] however, he devised a method of obscuring his meaning by using "Virgilianised" syntax, word games and a mixture of other languages such as Greek, Italian, Latin, and Provençal.[28] For technical reasons connected with their publication in three installments (the publisher of the third and last installment seems to have been unwilling to start it in the middle of a "Century," or book of 100 verses), the last fifty-eight quatrains of the seventh "Century" have not survived in any extant edition.

Century I, Quatrain 1 in the 1555 Lyon Bonhomme edition

The quatrains, published in a book titled Les Propheties (The Prophecies), received a mixed reaction when they were published. Some people thought Nostradamus was a servant of evil, a fake, or insane, while many of the elite evidently thought otherwise. Catherine de' Medici, wife of King Henry II of France, was one of Nostradamus's greatest admirers. After reading his almanacs for 1555, which hinted at unnamed threats to the royal family, she summoned him to Paris to explain them and to draw up horoscopes for her children. At the time, he feared that he would be beheaded,[29] but by the time of his death in 1566, Queen Catherine had made him Counselor and Physician-in-Ordinary to her son, the young King Charles IX of France.

Some accounts of Nostradamus's life state that he was afraid of being persecuted for heresy by the Inquisition, but neither prophecy nor astrology fell in this bracket, and he would have been in danger only if he had practised magic to support them. In 1538 he came into conflict with the Church in Agen after an Inquisitor visited the area looking for Anti-Catholic views.[30] His brief imprisonment at Marignane in late 1561 was solely because he had violated a recent royal decree by publishing his 1562 almanac without the prior permission of a bishop.[31]

Final years and death

Nostradamus' current tomb in the Collégiale Saint-Laurent, Salon, into which his scattered remains were transferred after 1789.
Nostradamus statue in Salon-de-Provence

By 1566, Nostradamus's gout, which had plagued him painfully for many years and made movement very difficult, turned into edema, or dropsy. In late June he summoned his lawyer to draw up an extensive will bequeathing his property plus 3,444 crowns (around $300,000 US today), minus a few debts, to his wife pending her remarriage, in trust for her sons pending their twenty-fifth birthdays and her daughters pending their marriages. This was followed by a much shorter codicil.[32] On the evening of 1 July, he is alleged to have told his secretary Jean de Chavigny, "You will not find me alive at sunrise." The next morning he was reportedly found dead, lying on the floor next to his bed and a bench (Presage 141 [originally 152] for November 1567, as posthumously edited by Chavigny to fit what happened).[33][23] He was buried in the local Franciscan chapel in Salon (part of it now incorporated into the restaurant La Brocherie) but re-interred during the French Revolution in the Collégiale Saint-Laurent, where his tomb remains to this day.[34]


Copy of Garencières' 1672 English translation of the Prophecies, located in The P.I. Nixon Medical History Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

In The Prophecies Nostradamus compiled his collection of major, long-term predictions. The first installment was published in 1555 and contained 353 quatrains. The third edition, with three hundred new quatrains, was reportedly printed in 1558, but now survives as only part of the omnibus edition that was published after his death in 1568. This version contains one unrhymed and 941 rhymed quatrains, grouped into nine sets of 100 and one of 42, called "Centuries".

Given printing practices at the time (which included type-setting from dictation), no two editions turned out to be identical, and it is relatively rare to find even two copies that are exactly the same. Certainly there is no warrant for assuming—as would-be "code-breakers" are prone to do—that either the spellings or the punctuation of any edition are Nostradamus's originals.[35]

The Almanacs, by far the most popular of his works,[36] were published annually from 1550 until his death. He often published two or three in a year, entitled either Almanachs (detailed predictions), Prognostications or Presages (more generalised predictions).

Nostradamus was not only a diviner, but a professional healer. It is known that he wrote at least two books on medical science. One was an extremely free translation (or rather a paraphrase) of The Protreptic of Galen (Paraphrase de C. GALIEN, sus l'Exhortation de Menodote aux estudes des bonnes Artz, mesmement Medicine), and in his so-called Traité des fardemens (basically a medical cookbook containing, once again, materials borrowed mainly from others), he included a description of the methods he used to treat the plague, including bloodletting, none of which apparently worked.[37] The same book also describes the preparation of cosmetics.

A manuscript normally known as the Orus Apollo also exists in the Lyon municipal library, where upwards of 2,000 original documents relating to Nostradamus are stored under the aegis of Michel Chomarat. It is a purported translation of an ancient Greek work on Egyptian hieroglyphs based on later Latin versions, all of them unfortunately ignorant of the true meanings of the ancient Egyptian script, which was not correctly deciphered until Champollion in the 19th century.[38]

Since his death, only the Prophecies have continued to be popular, but in this case they have been quite extraordinarily so. Over two hundred editions of them have appeared in that time, together with over 2,000 commentaries. Their persistence in popular culture seems to be partly because their vagueness and lack of dating make it easy to quote them selectively after every major dramatic event and retrospectively claim them as "hits".[39]

Origins of The Prophecies

Theophilus de Garencières, the first English translator of the Prophecies[40]

Nostradamus claimed to base his published predictions on judicial astrology—the astrological 'judgment', or assessment, of the 'quality' (and thus potential) of events such as births, weddings, coronations etc.—but was heavily criticised by professional astrologers of the day such as Laurens Videl[41] for incompetence and for assuming that "comparative horoscopy" (the comparison of future planetary configurations with those accompanying known past events) could actually predict what would happen in the future.[42]

Research suggests that much of his prophetic work paraphrases collections of ancient end-of-the-world prophecies (mainly Bible-based), supplemented with references to historical events and anthologies of omen reports, and then projects those into the future in part with the aid of comparative horoscopy. Hence the many predictions involving ancient figures such as Sulla, Gaius Marius, Nero, and others, as well as his descriptions of "battles in the clouds" and "frogs falling from the sky."[43] Astrology itself is mentioned only twice in Nostradamus's Preface and 41 times in the Centuries themselves, but more frequently in his dedicatory Letter to King Henry II. In the last quatrain of his sixth century he specifically attacks astrologers.

His historical sources include easily identifiable passages from Livy, Suetonius' The Twelve Caesars, Plutarch and other classical historians, as well as from medieval chroniclers such as Geoffrey of Villehardouin and Jean Froissart. Many of his astrological references are taken almost word for word from Richard Roussat's Livre de l'estat et mutations des temps of 1549–50.

One of his major prophetic sources was evidently the Mirabilis Liber of 1522, which contained a range of prophecies by Pseudo-Methodius, the Tiburtine Sibyl, Joachim of Fiore, Savonarola and others (his Preface contains 24 biblical quotations, all but two in the order used by Savonarola). This book had enjoyed considerable success in the 1520s, when it went through half a dozen editions, but did not sustain its influence, perhaps owing to its mostly Latin text, Gothic script and many difficult abbreviations. Nostradamus was one of the first to re-paraphrase these prophecies in French, which may explain why they are credited to him. It should be noted that modern views of plagiarism did not apply in the 16th century; authors frequently copied and paraphrased passages without acknowledgement, especially from the classics. The latest research suggests that he may in fact have used bibliomancy for this—randomly selecting a book of history or prophecy and taking his cue from whatever page it happened to fall open at.[2]

Further material was gleaned from the De honesta disciplina of 1504 by Petrus Crinitus,[44] which included extracts from Michael Psellos's De daemonibus, and the De Mysteriis Aegyptiorum (Concerning the mysteries of Egypt…), a book on Chaldean and Assyrian magic by Iamblichus, a 4th-century Neo-Platonist. Latin versions of both had recently been published in Lyon, and extracts from both are paraphrased (in the second case almost literally) in his first two verses, the first of which is appended to this article. While it is true that Nostradamus claimed in 1555 to have burned all of the occult works in his library, no one can say exactly what books were destroyed in this fire.

Only in the 17th century did people start to notice his reliance on earlier, mainly classical sources.[b]

Nostradamus's reliance on historical precedent is reflected in the fact that he explicitly rejected the label "prophet" (i.e. a person having prophetic powers of his own) on several occasions:[45]

Although, my son, I have used the word prophet, I would not attribute to myself a title of such lofty sublimity—Preface to César, 1555[46]

Not that I would attribute to myself either the name or the role of a prophet—Preface to César, 1555[46]

[S]ome of [the prophets] predicted great and marvelous things to come: [though] for me, I in no way attribute to myself such a title here.—Letter to King Henry II, 1558[47]

Not that I am foolish enough to claim to be a prophet.—Open letter to Privy Councillor (later Chancellor) Birague, 15 June 1566[45]

Detail from title-page of the original 1555 (Albi) edition of Nostradamus's Les Propheties

Given this reliance on literary sources, it is doubtful[48] whether Nostradamus used any particular methods for entering a trance state, other than contemplation, meditation and incubation. His sole description of this process is contained in letter 41 of his collected Latin correspondence.[49] The popular legend that he attempted the ancient methods of flame gazing, water gazing or both simultaneously is based on a naive reading of his first two verses, which merely liken his efforts to those of the Delphic and Branchidic oracles. The first of these is reproduced at the bottom of this article and the second can be seen by visiting the relevant facsimile site (see External Links). In his dedication to King Henri II, Nostradamus describes "emptying my soul, mind and heart of all care, worry and unease through mental calm and tranquility", but his frequent references to the "bronze tripod" of the Delphic rite are usually preceded by the words "as though" (compare, once again, External References to the original texts).


Most of the quatrains deal with disasters, such as plagues, earthquakes, wars, floods, invasions, murders, droughts, and battles—all undated and based on foreshadowings by the Mirabilis Liber. Some quatrains cover these disasters in overall terms; others concern a single person or small group of people. Some cover a single town, others several towns in several countries [50]. A major, underlying theme is an impending invasion of Europe by Muslim forces from farther east and south headed by the expected Antichrist, directly reflecting the then-current Ottoman invasions and the earlier Saracen equivalents, as well as the prior expectations of the Mirabilis Liber.[51] All of this is presented in the context of the supposedly imminent end of the world—even though this is not in fact mentioned[52]—a conviction that sparked numerous collections of end-time prophecies at the time, including an unpublished collection by Christopher Columbus.[53] [54]

Nostradamus has been credited, for the most part in hindsight, with predicting numerous events in world history, from the Great Fire of London, and the rise of Napoleon and Adolf Hitler, to the Challenger Explosion, to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center.[26] In 1992 one commentator who claimed to be able to contact Nostradamus under hypnosis even had him 'interpreting' his own verse X.6 (a prediction specifically about floods in southern France around the city of Nîmes and people taking refuge in its collosse, or Colosseum, a Roman amphitheatre now known as the Arènes) as a prediction of an undated attack on the Pentagon, despite the historical seer's clear statement in his dedicatory letter to King Henri II that his prophecies were about Europe, North Africa and part of Asia Minor.[55]

Skeptics such as James Randi suggest that his reputation as a prophet is largely manufactured by modern-day supporters who fit his words to events that have either already occurred or are so imminent as to be inevitable, a process sometimes known as "retroactive clairvoyance" (postdiction). Thus, no Nostradamus quatrain is known to have been interpreted as predicting a specific event before it occurred, other than in vague, general terms that could equally apply to any number of other events.[56] This even applies to quatrains that contain specific dates, such as III.77, which predicts "in 1727, in October, the king of Persia [shall be] captured by those of Egypt"—a prophecy that has, as ever, been interpreted retrospectively in the light of later events, in this case as though it presaged the known peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Persia of that year.[57] Similarly, Nostradamus's notorious '1999' prophecy at X.72 (see Nostradamus in popular culture) describes no event that commentators have succeeded in identifying either before or since, other than by dint of twisting the words to fit whichever of the many contradictory happenings they are keen to claim as 'hits'.[58] Moreover, no quatrain suggests, as is often claimed by books and films on the alleged Mayan Prophecy, that the world would end in December 2012.[59] In his preface to the Prophecies, Nostradamus himself stated that his prophecies extend 'from now to the year 3797'[60]—an extraordinary date which, given that the preface was written in 1555, may have more than a little to do with the fact that 2242 (3797 − 1555) had recently been proposed by his major astrological source Richard Roussat as a possible date for the end of the world.[61][62]

In popular culture

The prophecies retold and expanded by Nostradamus figured largely in popular culture in the 20th and 21st centuries. As well as being the subject of hundreds of books (both fiction and nonfiction), Nostradamus's life has been depicted in several films and videos, and his life and writings continue to be a subject of media interest.

There have also been several well-known Internet hoaxes, where quatrains in the style of Nostradamus have been circulated by e-mail as the real thing. The best-known examples concern the collapse of the World Trade Center in the 11 September attacks.[63]

With the arrival of the year 2012, Nostradamus's prophecies started to be co-opted (especially by the History Channel) as evidence suggesting that the end of the world was imminent, notwithstanding the fact that his book never mentions the end of the world, let alone the year 2012.[64]

He is portrayed as a character in the TV series Reign by actor Rossif Sutherland.

See also


  1. ^ Refer to the analysis of these charts by Brind'Amour, 1993, and compare Gruber's comprehensive critique of Nostradamus’ horoscope for Crown Prince Rudolph Maximilian.
  2. ^ Anonymous letters to the Mercure de France in August and November 1724 drew specific public attention to the fact (Anonyme) Lettre critique sur la personne et sur les écrits de Michel Nostradamus, Mercure de France, août et novembre 1724 (Comment in the French Wikipedia article on Nostradamus : "Relève, dans un esprit rationaliste, des coïncidences entre certains quatrains des Prophéties et des évènements antérieurs à la publication de ces quatrains. Tout n'est pas également convaincant, mais on repoussera difficilement, par exemple, le rapprochement entre le quatrain VIII, 72 et le siège de Ravenne de 1512.")


  1. ^ English pronunciation: /nɑːstrəˈdɑːməs, ˌns-, -ˈd-/ (Merriam-Webster); /nɒstrəˈdɑːməs/ (Collins English Dictionary: "Nostradamus"); /nɒstrəˈdɑːməs, -ˈd-/ (Oxford English Dictionary); /ˌnɒstrəˈdməs, -ˈdɑː-, ˈnstrə-/ (Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary: "Nostradamus").
  2. ^ a b c Lemesurier 2010.
  3. ^ Benazra 1990.
  4. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 150-2.
  5. ^ Leroy 1993, p. 24.
  6. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 143-6.
  7. ^ Leroy 1993, p. 32-51.
  8. ^ Lemesurier 1999, p. 24-5.
  9. ^ Chavigny, J.A. de: La première face du Janus françois... (Lyon, 1594)
  10. ^ Brind'Amour 1993, p. 545.
  11. ^ Lemesurier 2010, p. 48-9.
  12. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 2.
  13. ^ Nostradamus, Michel, Traite des fardemens et des confitures, 1555, 1556, 1557
  14. ^ Leroy 1993, p. 60-91.
  15. ^ Leroy 1993, p. 61.
  16. ^ Leroy 1993, p. 62-71.
  17. ^ Leroy 1993, p. 110-133.
  18. ^ Brind'Amour 1993, p. 130, 132, 369.
  19. ^ Nostradamus For Dummies 2005, pp. 66-68.
  20. ^ Lives of the Necromancers 1835, pp. 251-252.
  21. ^ Nostradamus: The Good News 2007, pp. 17-18.
  22. ^ Lemesurier 2010, p. 23-5.
  23. ^ a b Chevignard 1999.
  24. ^ Lemesurier 2010, p. 59-64.
  25. ^ Brind'Amour 1993, p. 326-399.
  26. ^ a b Gruber 2003.
  27. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 125.
  28. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 99-100.
  29. ^ Leroy 1993, p. 83.
  30. ^ Ian Wilson (1 April 2014). Nostradamus: The Man Behind the Prophecies. St. Martin's Press. pp. 62–. ISBN 978-1-4668-6737-6. 
  31. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 124.
  32. ^ Leroy 1993, p. 102-106.
  33. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 137.
  34. ^ Leroy 1993.
  35. ^ Brind'Amour 1993, p. 14, 435.
  36. ^ Brind'Amour 1993, p. 22-33.
  37. ^ Nostradamus & 1555/6/7, p. 11.
  38. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 183.
  39. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 144-5.
  40. ^ Chambers, Robert (1832). The Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in Connection with the Calendar, Including Anecdote, Biography, & History, Curiosities of Literature and Oddities of Human Life and Character, Volume 2. London: W. & R. Chambers Limited. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  41. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 236.
  42. ^ Brind'Amour 1993, p. 70-76.
  43. ^ Lemesurier 2003b, passim.
  44. ^ Brind'Amour 1993, p. 100, 233–5.
  45. ^ a b Lemesurier 2003, p. 109.
  46. ^ a b "Preface to César". 24 June 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  47. ^ "Letter to Henri II". 24 June 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  48. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 98.
  49. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 41, 225-9.
  50. ^
  51. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. xii-xviii.
  52. ^ Nostradamus, M., Les Propheties, 1568 omnibus edition
  53. ^ Watts 1985, p. 73-102.
  54. ^ "Nostradamus". Internet Sacred Text Archive. 2010. 
  55. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 145.
  56. ^ Lemesurier 2010, p. 23.
  57. ^ See, for example, Cheetham, Erika, The Final Prophecies of Nostradamus, Futura, 1990, pp.208-9
  58. ^ Lemesurier 2010, p. 21-2.
  59. ^ Lemesurier 2010, p. 41.
  60. ^ Nostradamus 1555, Preface.
  61. ^ Roussat, R., Livre de l'etat et mutations des temps, Lyon, 1550, p. 95; Brinette, B, Richard Roussat: Livre de l'etat et mutations des temps, introduction et traductions, 1550 (undated dossier)
  62. ^ Lemesurier 2003, p. 53.
  63. ^ "False prophesy". Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  64. ^ Lemesurier, P. 2012, It's Not the End of the World, Derwen, 2011

Further reading

  • Gerson, Stéphane. Nostradamus: How an Obscure Renaissance Astrologer Became the Modern Prophet of Doom (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2012) 347pp
  • Mcmann, Lee. Nostradamus, The Man Who Saw Through Time (New York:Creative Page Express, Inc., 1941) at Sacred Texts Archive
  • Smoley, Richard, The Essential Nostradamus (Tarcher, Penguin, NY, 2006)
  • Secret Vault: Nostradamus Prophecy Locations

External links

1893 text

Michael Nostradamus, a physician and astrologer, born in the diocese of Avignon, 1503. Amongst other predictions, one was interpreted as foreshowing the singular death of Hen. II. of France, by which his reputation was increased.

This text comes from a footnote on a diary entry in the 1893 edition edited by Henry B. Wheatley.

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.


  • Feb