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Saint Kitts
Map showing Saint Kitts and Nevis
Location of Saint Kitts among the Leeward Islands.
Geography
LocationCaribbean Sea
Coordinates17°19′N 62°43′W / 17.31°N 62.72°W / 17.31; -62.72
ArchipelagoLeeward Islands
Total islands8
Major islands2
Area174 km2 (67 sq mi)
Length29 km (18 mi)
Width8 km (5 mi)
Highest elevation1,156 m (3793 ft)
Highest pointMount Liamuiga
Administration
2 divisions of Saint Kitts
Largest settlementBasseterre (pop. 15,500)
Demographics
Population34,918[1] (2011)
Pop. density208.33/km2 (539.57/sq mi)
Ethnic groupsAfrican descent, Indian, British, Portuguese, Lebanese

Saint Kitts, officially Saint Christopher, is an island in the West Indies. The west side of the island borders the Caribbean Sea, and the eastern coast faces the Atlantic Ocean. Saint Kitts and the neighbouring island of Nevis constitute one country: the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis. Saint Kitts and Nevis are separated by a shallow 3-kilometre (2 mi) channel known as "The Narrows".

Saint Kitts became home to the first Caribbean British and French colonies in the mid-1620s.[2][3] Along with the island of Nevis, Saint Kitts was a member of the British West Indies until gaining independence on 19 September 1983.[4]

The island is one of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles. It is situated about 2,100 km (1,300 mi) southeast of Miami, Florida, US. The land area of Saint Kitts is about 168 km2 (65 sq mi), being approximately 29 km (18 mi) long and on average about 8 km (5.0 mi) across.

Saint Kitts has a population of about 40,000, the majority of whom are of African descent. The primary language is English, with a literacy rate of approximately 98%.[5] Residents call themselves Kittitians. The island is named after the Christian Saint Christopher; "Kit" was formerly a common diminutive of "Christopher".

Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest fortress ever built in the Eastern Caribbean. The island of Saint Kitts is home to the Warner Park Cricket Stadium, which was used to host 2007 Cricket World Cup matches. This made Saint Kitts and Nevis the smallest nation to ever host a World Cup event. Saint Kitts is also home to several institutions of higher education, including Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Windsor University School of Medicine, and the University of Medicine and Health Sciences.

Geography

The capital of the two-island nation, and also its largest port, is the town of Basseterre on Saint Kitts. There is a modern facility for handling large cruise ships there. A ring road goes around the perimeter of the island with smaller roads branching off it; the interior of the island is too steep for habitation.

Saint Kitts is 10 km (6.2 mi) away from Sint Eustatius to the north and 3 km (1.9 mi) from Nevis to the south. St. Kitts has three distinct groups of volcanic peaks: the North West or Mount Misery Range; the Middle or Verchilds Range and the South East or Olivees Range. The highest peak is Mount Liamuiga, formerly Mount Misery, a dormant volcano 1,156 metres (3,793 ft) high.

Geology

The youngest volcanic center is Mt. Liamuiga, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) in diameter and rising to an elevation of 1,155 metres (3,789 ft). Its last eruption was 1620 years ago, corresponding with the Steel Dust series of pyroclastic deposits on the western flank. The Mansion Series of pyroclastic deposits and andesite with basalt layers occur on the northern flank, along with mudflows. This volcano has a crater 900 metres (3,000 ft) wide and 244 metres (801 ft) deep, plus two distinct parasitic domes consisting primarily of andesite, Brimstone Hill and Sandy Point Hill which is coalesced with Farm Flat. Brimstone Hill is noted for having limestone on its flanks, which was dragged upward with the formation of the dome 44,400 years ago. Mt. Liamuiga partially overlays the Middle Range to the southeast. This Middle Range is another stratovolcano 976 m in height with a small summit crater containing a lake. Next in line is the 900 metres (3,000 ft) South East Range, 1 Myr in age, consisting of four peaks. Ottley's dome and Monkey Hill dome are on the flanks, while the older volcanoes represented by Canada Hills, and Conaree Hills lie past the airport and Basseterre on the southeast flank. The Salt Dome Peninsula contains the oldest volcanic deposits, 2.3–2.77 Myr in age, consisting of at least nine Pelean domes rising up to 319 metres (1,047 ft) in height, which includes Williams Hill and St. Anthony's Peak.[6][7][8][9]

History

French and English partitions of west St. Kitts. Note the location of Fort Charles and the sulfur mine further to the west.
French and English partitions of east St. Kitts. Note the location of Fort Basseterre.
Siege of Brimstone Hill, 1782, as described by an observer in a French engraving titled "Attaque de Brimstomhill".

During the last ice age, the sea level was up to 91 metres (300 ft) lower and St. Kitts and Nevis were one island along with Saba and Sint Eustatius (also known as Statia).[10]

St. Kitts was originally settled by pre-agricultural, pre-ceramic "Archaic people", who migrated south down the archipelago from Florida. In a few hundred years they disappeared, to be replaced by the ceramic-using and agriculturalist Saladoid people around 100 BC, who migrated to St. Kitts north up the archipelago from the banks of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. Around 800 AD, they were replaced by the Igneri people, members of the Arawak group.

Around 1300 AD, the Kalinago, or Carib people arrived on the islands. These agriculturalists quickly dispersed the Igneri, and forced them northwards to the Greater Antilles. They named Saint Kitts "Liamuiga" meaning "fertile island", and would likely have expanded further north if not for the arrival of Europeans.

A Spanish expedition under Christopher Columbus arrived and claimed the island for Spain in 1493.

The first English colony was established in 1623, followed by a French colony in 1625. The English and French briefly united to pre-empt a Kalinago ambush. They massacred the local Kalinago,[11] and then partitioned the island, with the English colonists in the middle and the French on either end. In 1629, a Spanish force sent to clear the islands of foreign settlement seized St. Kitts. The English settlement was rebuilt following the 1630 peace between England and Spain.

The island alternated repeatedly between English (then British) and French control during the 17th and 18th centuries, as one power took the whole island, only to have it switch hands due to treaties or military action. Actions included the Siege of Brimstone Hill and the Battle of Saint Kitts. Parts of the island were heavily fortified, as exemplified by the UNESCO World Heritage Site at Brimstone Hill and the now-crumbling Fort Charles.

Since 1783, Saint Kitts has been affiliated with the Kingdom of Great Britain, which became the United Kingdom.

Slavery

The island originally produced tobacco, but farmers switched to sugar cane in 1640 because of stiff competition from the colony of Virginia. The labour-intensive cultivation of sugar cane was the reason for the large-scale importation of African slaves. The importation began almost immediately upon the arrival of Europeans to the region even though sugarcane wasn't cultivated for another two hundred years on the island, leading some to discredit the earliest claims of imported African labour.[12]

The purchasing of enslaved Africans was outlawed in the British Empire by an Act of Parliament in 1807. Slavery was abolished by an Act of Parliament which became law on 1 August 1834. This emancipation was followed by four years of forced enslavement, put in place to protect the "planters" (plantation owners) from losing their free labour force.

1 August is now celebrated as a public holiday and is called Emancipation Day. In 1883, Saint Kitts, Nevis, and Anguilla were all linked under one presidency, located on Saint Kitts, to the dismay of the Nevisians and Anguillans. Anguilla left this arrangement in 1971, after an armed raid on Saint Kitts in 1967.[13]

Sugar production continued to dominate the local economy until 2005, when, after 365 years of having a monoculture, the government closed the sugar industry. This decision was made because of huge losses and European Union plans to greatly cut sugar prices.

Government

For purposes of governing, the island is divided into nine parishes:

Economy

Saint Kitts & Nevis uses the Eastern Caribbean dollar, which maintains a fixed exchange rate of 2.7-to-one with the United States dollar.[14] The US dollar is almost as widely accepted on the island as the Eastern Caribbean dollar.[15]

For hundreds of years, Saint Kitts operated as a sugar monoculture, but due to decreasing profitability, the government closed the industry in 2005. Tourism is a major and growing source of income to the island, although the number and density of resorts is less than on many other Caribbean islands. Transportation, non-sugar agriculture, manufacturing and construction are the other growing sectors of the economy.[16]

Saint Kitts is dependent on tourism to drive its economy. Tourism has been increasing since 1978. In 2009, there were 587,479 arrivals to Saint Kitts compared to 379,473 in 2007, which represents an increase of just under 40% growth in a two-year period. As tourism grows, the demand for vacation property increases in conjunction.

Saint Kitts & Nevis also acquires foreign direct investment from their unique citizenship by investment programme, outlined in their Citizenship Act of 1984.[17] Interested parties can acquire citizenship if they pass the government's strict background checks and make an investment into an approved real estate development. Purchasers who pass government due diligence and make a minimum investment of US$400,000, into qualifying government approved real estate, are entitled to apply for citizenship of the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis. Many projects are approved under the citizenship by investment programme, and the main qualifying projects of interest can be found within the Henley Estates market overview .[18]

The country hosts an annual St. Kitts Music Festival.

Transportation

Robert L. Bradshaw International Airport serves Saint Kitts. Daily connections from Charlotte, Miami and New York are available.

The Basseterre Ferry Terminal facilitates travel between Saint Kitts and sister island Nevis.

The narrow-gauge (30 inches[19]) St. Kitts Scenic Railway circles the island and offers passenger service from its headquarters near the airport, although the service is geared more for tourists than as day-to-day transportation for residents. Built between 1912 and 1926 to haul sugar cane from farms to the sugar factory in Basseterre, since 2003 the railway has offered a 3.5-hour, 30-mile circle tour of the island on specially designed double-decker open-air coaches, with 12 miles of the trip being by bus.[20]

Notable natives and residents

Saint Kitts is or was the residence of:

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "ST. KITTS AND NEVIS". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  2. ^ Lucas, Sir Charles Prestwood (1890). "A Historical Geography of the British Colonies: The West Indies". Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  3. ^ Tisdall, Nigel (5 February 2016). "St Kitts: the Gibraltar of the West Indies". The Telegraph. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  4. ^ "Caribbean's St. Kitts gets independence, new name". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  5. ^ "Saint Kitts and Nevis | CIA World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  6. ^ "St. Kitts – Geology". University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  7. ^ "St. Kitts Geology". Caribbean Volcanoes. Archived from the original on 4 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Volcanic Hazard Assessment for St. Kitts". Volcanic Hazard Assessment for St. Kitts, Lesser Antilles.
  9. ^ Wetsermann, J.H.; Kiel, H. (1961). The Geology of Saba and St. Eustatius. Utrecht: Kemink & Zn. pp. 158–161.
  10. ^ Hubbard, Vincent (2002). A History of St. Kitts. Macmillan Caribbean. p. 1. ISBN 9780333747605.
  11. ^ "Top 10 attractions in St Kitts". The Guardian. 1 October 2013.
  12. ^ O'Callaghan, Sean (2000). To Hell or Barbados. Dublin: Brandon, O'Brien Press. pp. 66, 137, 148, 173, 176, 202. ISBN 978-0-86322-287-0.
  13. ^ "Introduction ::Anguilla". 10 January 2023.
  14. ^ "USD/XCD Chart". XE.com. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  15. ^ St Kitts Tourism Authority Archived 13 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Eastern Caribbean Dollar (XCD$). U.S. bills are accepted by most stores and businesses and change is given in E.C. currency. U.S. coins are not accepted.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ "Citizenship-by-Investment Introduction". Elevay Global. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  18. ^ "Citizenship-by-Investment Download". Henley Estates. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  19. ^ Schwartzman, M. T. "St. Kitts Railway: One Sweet Ride," Cruise Travel, December 2005, accessed 15 December 2012.
  20. ^ Saint Kitts Scenic Railway, official site, accessed 15 December 2012.
  21. ^ Milward, Jessica (15 December 2015). Finding Charity's Folks. ISBN 9780820348797. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  22. ^ "A letter from Bertil: Bertil Fox is serving a life sentence for double murder on the island of St. Kitts. In this FLEX exclusive, he gives his version of what happened on that fateful day in 1997". Flex. 2005. Archived from the original on 14 November 2006.
  23. ^ "The Muscle Murders". CNN. 18 May 1998.
  24. ^ "BERTIL FOX: STARS OF BODYBUILDING | MRO Fansite | History of Mr. and Masters Olympia | The Best Bodybuilders, Muscle Gallery, Bodybuilder, photos, links, pics, videos, biography, news, interview". Schwarzenegger.it. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  25. ^ [2] Archived 26 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ [3]Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine

External links

3 Annotations

Second Reading

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

In Pepys' time St. Kitts was captured by the French in the Spring of 1666. The governor of Willoughbyland (now Surinam) was sent to recapture it along with 1,000 men, but unfortunately their little armada ran into a hurricane, with devastating results.

For the complete story, see

http://www.historytoday.com/matth…

(Willoughbyland became part of the Treaty, ceded to the Dutch for New York in 1667.)

San Diego Sarah  •  Link

Between 1624 and 1632, St. Christopher (St. Kitts), Barbados, Nevis, Monserrat and Antigua were settled by the English. The typical arrangement governing settlement was a grant by the king to a trading company, and the grant defined the parameters of settlement.

Wherever they settled, the English quickly asserted their rights and liberties against the mother country, and saw themselves as English abroad, whatever their motives for emigration.

One English colony, part of the early rapid expansion of settlement in the Caribbean, was unusual, in that its proprietors shared the lofty ideals of the New England Puritan founders.

Founded in 1629, Providence Island (Providencia, between Costa Rica and Jamaica, off what is now Columbia), was the prospective colony promoted by the most determined Puritan opponents of King Charles (Adm. Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick, 1587-1619-1658, Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke 1608-1628-1643, William 'Old Subtlety' Fiennes, Viscount Saye and Sele (d. 1662), Oliver St.John, John Pym). It was intended to be a godly commonwealth -- but the settlers needed to trade.

In the Caribbean, the native Carib peoples with whom the settlers came into contact were subject to episodic violence by the English and French.

But in some new colonies, including Providence Island, the Caribs were recognized as a trading people, with whom the English needed to do business. However, they were treated very differently from European trading partners.

Providence Island settlers were forbidden from enslaving the Caribs; instead they became the objects of Christian missionary endeavors.

Yet another ethic applied to Africans. More slaves from West Africa were brought to Providence Island than to any other English colony before 1640. Qualms by some of the investors and colonists over the legitimacy of slavery had been overcome by the perceived need to acquire more labor than emigration from England could provide.

When the Spanish overran Providence Island in 1641, ending English rule there, they took 350 English people captive and 381 slaves.

Back in England, the opening of the Parliament in November 1640 provided the new arena for conflict between King Charles and the Puritan opposition, compared to which the failure of Providence Island was of no consequence, and the jarring discord of Black slavery in a colony founded to safeguard and promote English liberties was simply not perceived or articulated at Westminster.

Excerpted from Slavery, the Caribbean and English Liberties, 1620-1640
https://thehistoryofparliament.wo…

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References

Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.

1666