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From OED (minus all non-Samuel cittions):
I. 1. A cutting or slicing instrument; a knife.
II. 2. A flat piece of wood, square or circular, on which meat was served and cut up; a plate or platter of wood, metal, or earthenware. arch. and Hist.
3. A slice of bread used instead of a plate or platter. Obs.
4. a. A trencher and that which it bears; a supply of food; cf. TABLE 6c. arch.
b. In proverbial phrases, chiefly of obvious meaning. to lick the trencher, to toady; to play the parasite. trim as a trencher: see quot. 1542.
5. transf. A flat board, circular or otherwise.
b. Applied to a butcher's