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John Earle
Bishop of Salisbury
Portrait of John Earle, circa 1660
Term ended1665
PredecessorHumphrey Henchman
SuccessorAlexander Hyde
Other post(s)Bishop of Worcester
Personal details
Died17 November 1665
DenominationChurch of England
Alma materChrist Church, Oxford

John Earle (c. 1601 – 17 November 1665) was an English cleric, author and translator, who was chaplain to Charles II. Towards the end of his life he was Bishop of Worcester and then Salisbury.


He was born at York, but the exact date is unknown. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, but moved to Merton, where he obtained a fellowship. In 1631 he was proctor and also chaplain to Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke, then chancellor of the university, which led in 1639 to incumbency of the rectory of Bishopston[1] in Wiltshire.[2]

His fame spread, and in 1641 he was appointed chaplain and tutor to the future Charles II of England. In 1643 he was elected one of the Westminster Assembly, but his sympathies with Charles I of England and with the Anglican Communion were so strong that he declined to sit. Early in 1643 he was chosen chancellor of Salisbury Cathedral, but he was soon deprived of this position as a "malignant." After the final Royalist defeat at the Battle of Worcester, Earle went abroad, and was made Clerk of the Closet (1651–1664) and chaplain to his former student Charles II.[2]

He spent a year at Antwerp in the house of Izaak Walton's friend, George Morley. He then joined the Duke of York (the future James II) in Paris, returning to England at the Restoration. He was appointed dean of Westminster, and in 1661 was one of the commissioners for revising the liturgy. He was on friendly terms with Richard Baxter. In November 1662 he was consecrated Bishop of Worcester, and was translated, ten months later, to the see of Salisbury, where he conciliated the nonconformists. He was strongly opposed to the Conventicle Act and Five Mile Act. During the Great Plague of London in 1665 – 1666, Earle attended to Charles II and his Queen consort Catherine of Braganza at Oxford, and there he died.[2]

Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, in his Life, wrote "Dr Earle was a man of great piety and devotion, a most eloquent and powerful preacher, and of a conversation so pleasant and delightful, so very innocent, and so very facetious, that no man’s company was more desired and loved. No man was more negligent in his dress and habit and mien, no man more wary and cultivated in his behaviour and discourse. He was very dear to the Lord Falkland, with whom he spent as much time as he could make his own."[2]


Earle's chief title to remembrance is his witty and humorous work, Microcosmographie, or a Peece of the World discovered, in Essayes and Characters, which throws light on the manners of the time. First published anonymously in 1628, it became very popular, and ran through ten editions in the lifetime of the author. The style is quaint and epigrammatic: "A university dunner is a gentlemen follower cheaply purchased, for his own money has hyr'd him." Several reprints of the book have been issued since the author's death; and in 1671 a French translation by James Dymocke appeared with the title of Le Vice ridicule.[2]

Earle was employed by Charles II to make the Latin translation of the Eikon Basilike, published in 1649. A similar translation of Richard Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity was accidentally destroyed.[2]


  1. ^ Baggs, A. P.; Critall, Elizabeth; Freeman, Jane; Stevenson, Janet H. (1980). "Parishes: Bishopstone". In Crowley, D. A. (ed.). A History of the County of Wiltshire, Volume 11. Victoria County History. University of London. pp. 3–19. Retrieved 12 January 2022 – via British History Online.
  2. ^ a b c d e f One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Earle, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 796.


External links

1893 text

John Earle, born about 1601; appointed in 1643 one of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, but his principles did not allow him to act. He accompanied Charles II. when he was obliged to fly from England. Dean of Westminster at the Restoration, Bishop of Worcester, November 30th, 1662, and translated to Salisbury, September 28th, 1663. He was tender to the Nonconformists, and Baxter wrote of him, “O that they were all such!” Author of “Microcosmography.” Died November 17th, 1665, and was buried in the chapel of Merton College, of which he had been a Fellow. Charles II. had the highest esteem for him.

This text comes from a footnote on a diary entry in the 1893 edition edited by Henry B. Wheatley.

2 Annotations

First Reading

Pedro  •  Link

John Earle.

Succeeded Newcastle as Charles's tutor, scored more success with the Prince by his unglossed mixture of piety and charity. Earle later went into exile with his pupil. Perhaps the charm of Earle's manner, his light "facetious" conversation, won the Prince's heart; more likely it was his lack of the Restoration Earle was duly rewarded along with those others to whom Charles felt properly grateful.

(Fraser, King Charles II.)

Second Reading

Bill  •  Link

EARLE, JOHN (1601?-1665), bishop of Salisbury; B.A. Merton College, Oxford, and fellow, 1619; M.A., 1624: rector of Bishopston, Wiltshire, 1639: tutor to Charles, prince of Wales, 1641; D.D. Oxford, 1640; unexpectedly appointed one of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, 1643; chancellor of Salisbury, 1643; deprived, as a 'malignant'; chaplain and clerk of the closet to Charles II in France; dean of Westminster, 1660; bishop of Worcester, 1662-3; bishop of Salisbury, 1663-5; opposed both the Conventicle and the Five-mile acts; author of 'Microcosmographie,' 1628, and 'Hortus Mertonensis,' a Latin poem.
---Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome. S. Lee, 1906.

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Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.