Annotations and comments

has posted 57 annotations/comments since 23 March 2015.


About Wednesday 10 September 1662

John York  •  Link

"finding both door and hatch open"
Surely this refers to the shop door being open, and then on entering finding the hatch in the counter raised, thus giving access to the stock which would be on shelves behind the counter. In effect anyone could enter the shop and remove goods without those working in the back rooms being able to hear what was happening. In my youth this was the normal layout for a small shop and a bell would be rigged to alert staff when the front door was opened.
Think of the hatch in the counter in "Only Fools & Horses"

About Tuesday 9 September 1662

John York  •  Link

For UK members - I have just caught up with some TV I have recently recorded. In the first episode of Antiques Road Trip broadcast on 7 September there is a 5 minute segment where Paul Laidlaw visits the Pepys Library in Cambridge and is shown one of the volumes of the diary. You can clearly see the shorthand together with names written in long hand. It is interesting to ses the incomprehensible symbols interspersed with the occasional very recognisable name.
If you have access to BBC I-player the programme is available for download until 6 October.…

About Tuesday 2 September 1662

John York  •  Link

Two contrasting posts by Cumgranissalis. The second has a fascinating link to background information about the Navy Board and its staffing, both in the 1660's and into the future. Cumgranissalis I thank you.

About Saturday 9 August 1662

John York  •  Link

Bill, the problem with not reading the diary in sequence is that you don't know whether entries have been or are still to come.
However on 14 March 1662/63 we will get this footnote.

"1. For ingenious. The distinction of the two words ingenious and ingenuous by which the former indicates mental, and the second moral qualities, was not made in Pepys’s day."

Which could be indicating that, in the editor's opinion, the words are interchangeable in Pepys useage.

About Saturday 26 July 1662

John York  •  Link

It goes without saying that this is now what we call Real or Royal Tennis. Lawn tennis was only invented between 1850 and 1875.
Since the 1500s the balls have been made with leather and filled with soft stuffing, which included animal and human hair. Before this, balls were more like ammunition, filled with clay, sand and powdered egg shells and could take out an opponent with a single hit!
This site has a history of the game and also the Royal Tennis Court at Hampton Court.
Wikipedia suggest the ball is made from a cork core covered with wollen cloth, which is said to be very close to the original used in the game.

About James Howard (3rd Earl of Suffolk, Earl Marshal)

John York  •  Link

James Howard third Earl of Suffolk had 3 wives.
He firstly married in 1640 Susan third daughter of Henry Rich Earl of Holland,
secondly married in 1650 Barbara daughter of Sir Edward Villiers and
thirdly married in 1682 Lady Anne Montague eldest daughter of Robert third Earl of Manchester (who was son of the Second Earl of Manchester the first cousin of Mountagu "my Lord," Earl of Sandwich in the diary).
So at the time of the diary he was married to Barabara Villiers (per Phil's entry above) she is referred to as Duchesse of Suffolk in the entry for 26 July 1662.
The reference by Anonymous to the marriage to Lady Charlotte Byle relates to a different James Howard. This James Howard was the nephew of the third Earl of Suffolk being the only son of Thomas, second son of the second Earl of Suffolk.

About Tuesday 4 October 1664

John York  •  Link

The better link in Wikipedia is to
Which tells us that:
"This species has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It is noted in the Ebers Papyrus of the 16th century BC, one of the oldest medical texts of ancient Egypt. Pythagoras wrote about it in the 6th century BC. Hippocrates used it to treat jaundice, convulsions, and asthma. Theophrastus was also familiar with it. Its primary medicinal use was as a treatment for edema, then called dropsy, because of the diuretic properties of the cardiac glycosides. A solution of sea squill and vinegar was a common remedy for centuries. The plant is also used as a laxative and an expectorant."
as well as showing illustrations of the plant and listing its uses as a poison.

About Wednesday 11 June 1662

John York  •  Link

Red ink appears not to be made from Madder, which is well known for producing a red dye, but from Vermilion.
" Red ink in manuscripts goes back at least to the fifth century and flourished until the fifteenth. Vermilion is mercuric sulphide, and is turned into red ink by grinding up and mixing it with white of egg and gum arabic. Red ink can also be made from brazilwood chips which were infused in vinegar and mixed with gum arabic. Brazilwood, one should explain, is not a native of South America - the country was named after its abundance of the well-known trees already familiar to makers of medieval red ink."
Ink in -

About Wednesday 4 June 1662

John York  •  Link

The trade in rope from Riga reminded me of the Hanseatic League, which by Pepys time had broken up, but which in the 21st Century is reforming as a forum for towns and cities. There is a useful illustration of the trade routes which existed in the time of the League at…
This illustrates how easily goods could flow from Riga to London.

There is also a brief history of Riga. During the Livonian War (1558–83), Riga became a Free imperial city until the 1581 Treaty of Drohiczyn ceded Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625).

About Monday 5 May 1662

John York  •  Link

Louise, Yesterday (Sunday) - “my wife and I walked to Grays Inn, to observe fashions of the ladies, because of my wife’s making some clothes”

Today (Monday) - “my wife being gone out to buy some things for herself”

Yes and a gown for Sam, but I think there is enough here to assume that she is buying clothes or materials for her own clothes.

About Thursday 1 May 1662

John York  •  Link

“in the truckle bed “

Surely here truckle is being used as an adjective and not a verb.
“Truckle-bed - a low bed running on truckles or castors, usually pushed beneath a high or 'standing' bed when not in use.”
“Truckle - a small roller or wheel placed under or attached to a heavy object to facilitate moving it; a castor on a piece of furniture”
– Oxford English Dictionary

About Friday 7 March 1661/62

John York  •  Link

From information in other entries Robert Creighton was chaplain to Charles I. He was due to preach to parliament on 30 January 1661/62 but had to withdraw due to illness. 30 January was the fast-day for murdering the late King and is still, in 2015, in the Church of England's calendar as the saints day of Charles, King and Martyr. The sermon is for the fast day of Charles, King and Martyr, not for the saints whose day's fall on 10 March.

About Sunday 23 March 1661/62

John York  •  Link

Coat of Arms
Sam uses the coat of arms of his father, which would be differenced by a label during his father's lifetime. The 2nd & 3rd quarters are the Arms of Talbot. These were added to the Pepys arms after John Pepys (Sam's great grandfather) married Margaret Talbot who was a heraldic heiress (her father had no male issue) and would be borne of right by issue of that marriage.

However, looking at the family tree, I believe Sam was the issue of John's first marriage and would not bear these quarters by right. Paulina who is issue of this second marriage is the family member who married into the Montague family.