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Wikipedia

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Texel
Municipality and island
North end of the island with the Eierland light house in 2015
North end of the island with the Eierland light house in 2015
Flag of Texel
Flag
Coat of arms of Texel
Coat of arms
Highlighted position of Texel in a municipal map of North Holland
Location in North Holland
Coordinates: 53°3′N 4°48′E / 53.050°N 4.800°E / 53.050; 4.800Coordinates: 53°3′N 4°48′E / 53.050°N 4.800°E / 53.050; 4.800
Country Netherlands
Province North Holland
Government[1]
 • Body Municipal council
 • Mayor Francine Giskes (D66)
Area[2]
 • Total 463.16 km2 (178.83 sq mi)
 • Land 161.12 km2 (62.21 sq mi)
 • Water 302.04 km2 (116.62 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 2 m (7 ft)
Population (May 2014)[4]
 • Total 13,641
 • Density 85/km2 (220/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Tesselaar, Texelaar
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postcode 1790–1797
Area code 0222
Website www.texel.nl

Texel (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈtɛsəl]) is a municipality and an island with a population of 13,641 in the province of North Holland in the Netherlands. It is the largest and most populated island of the West Frisian Islands in the Wadden Sea. The island is situated north of Den Helder, northeast of Noorderhaaks, also known as "Razende Bol" and southwest of Vlieland.

Name

The name Texel is Frisian, but because of historical sound-changes in Dutch, where all -x- sounds have been replaced with -s- sounds (compare for instance English Fox, Frisian Fokse, German Fuchs with Dutch Vos), the name is typically pronounced Tessel in Dutch.[5]

History

In the early Middle Ages and before, Texel and Wieringen may have been much bigger and met each other as opposite banks of the Marsdiep, which was then a river with banks of permanent land: see here.

In the 13th Century Ada, Countess of Holland was held prisoner on Texel by her uncle William.

Texel received city rights in 1415.

Dutch ships in the roadstead of Texel, 1671

Texel was involved in the Battle of Scheveningen (1653) during the First Anglo-Dutch War and the Battle of Texel (1673) during the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

Texel is also famous in military history as the only place where a navy was defeated on horseback. Occupying Holland in January 1795, the French continental army learned that the mighty Dutch navy had been frozen into the ice around Texel, so Commandant Louis Joseph Lahure and 128 men rode up to it and demanded surrender. No shots were fired.

In 1797, Texel was involved in the Battle of Camperdown during the Napoleonic wars.

During the American Revolution, Texel was used as a haven port for the USS Bonhomme Richard before it sank off the coast of Flamborough Head in Britain in September 1779. In that final action, John Paul Jones defeated and captured the British ship HMS Serapis, which he sailed to Texel for desperately needed repairs. This event further complicated Anglo-Dutch relations.

During the First World War in 1914, the Battle off Texel took place off the coast of Texel.

On the night of 31 August 1940, the sea to the northwest of Texel was the scene of the sinking of two British destroyers and the severe damage of a third by German mines in what became known as the Texel Disaster.

At the end of Second World War in 1945, the Georgian Uprising of Texel took place on the island.

Geography

2014 map of Texel

The municipality is located at 53°3′N 4°48′E / 53.050°N 4.800°E / 53.050; 4.800 north of the mainland of the province of North Holland and west of the mainland of the province of Friesland. The island of Texel is situated north of the city of Den Helder, northeast of the uninhabited island of Noorderhaaks, which is part of the municipality, and southwest of the island of Vlieland.

The island includes the seven villages De Cocksdorp, De Koog, De Waal, Den Burg, Den Hoorn, Oosterend, and Oudeschild, and the small townships of Bargen, De Nes, Dijkmanshuizen, Driehuizen, Harkebuurt, 't Horntje, Midden-Eierland, Molenbuurt, Nieuweschild, Noorderbuurt, Ongeren, Oost, Spang, Spijkdorp, Tienhoven, Westermient, Zevenhuizen, and Zuid-Eierland.

The island of Texel was originally made up of two islands, Texel proper to the south and Eierland to the northeast, which were connected by shoals. In the seventeenth century, the islands were poldered together. Today, Texel forms the largest natural barrier between the North Sea and the Wadden Sea.

Landscape

The dune landscape on Texel is a unique habitat for wildlife. Texel is known for its wildlife, particularly in winter, when birds of prey and geese take up residence. About one third of Texel is a protected nature reserve.

Climate

Climate data for Texel
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
14.9
(58.8)
20.5
(68.9)
25.5
(77.9)
28.5
(83.3)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
33.8
(92.8)
28.5
(83.3)
24.2
(75.6)
16.6
(61.9)
13.8
(56.8)
33.8
(92.8)
Average high °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
5.5
(41.9)
8
(46)
11.5
(52.7)
15.5
(59.9)
18
(64)
20.5
(68.9)
20.5
(68.9)
18
(64)
14
(57)
9.5
(49.1)
6
(43)
12.71
(54.78)
Average low °C (°F) 1
(34)
0.5
(32.9)
2.5
(36.5)
5
(41)
7.5
(45.5)
11.5
(52.7)
13.5
(56.3)
14
(57)
11.5
(52.7)
8.5
(47.3)
5
(41)
2
(36)
6.88
(44.41)
Record low °C (°F) −18.8
(−1.8)
−13.4
(7.9)
−8.0
(17.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
1.5
(34.7)
5.2
(41.4)
5.6
(42.1)
3.4
(38.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
−6.4
(20.5)
−10.0
(14)
−18.8
(−1.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 70
(2.76)
50
(1.97)
60
(2.36)
35
(1.38)
50
(1.97)
50
(1.97)
65
(2.56)
70
(2.76)
90
(3.54)
100
(3.94)
95
(3.74)
80
(3.15)
815
(32.1)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60 95 135 195 235 220 225 205 145 110 60 50 1,735
Source #1: [6]
Source #2: [7]

Economy

Eierland light house in 2013

The tourism industry forms a substantial part of the economy in Texel. Approximately 70% of activities on Texel are in some way related to tourism. Popular forms of tourism on Texel include cycling, walking, swimming and horse riding.

Local government

The municipal council of Texel consists of 15 seats, which are divided as follows [as of April 2014]:

Transport

Ferry MS Dokter Wagemaker from Den Helder to Texel in 2005

Transport around the island is typically by bicycle, bus (Texelhopper) or car. Texel has an extensive cycle path network. Transport to Texel is usually by ferry (Royal TESO), from Den Helder, or by air via Texel International Airport.

References

  1. ^ "B&W samenstelling en portefeuilles" [Mayor and aldermen members and tasks] (in Dutch). Gemeente Texel. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  2. ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "Postcodetool for 1791AT". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  4. ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  5. ^ Donaldson, BC: Dutch: A Linguistic History of Holland and Belgium, page 151, Martinus Nijhoff, 1983
  6. ^ "Klimaatatlas| KNMI". knmi.nl. Retrieved 2015-03-08. 
  7. ^ "Extremen 1971-2000 per station" (PDF). knmi.nl. Retrieved 2015-03-09. 

External links

4 Annotations

Mary  •  Link

Texel.

Probably best known these days for the Texel sheep that were first bred there in the early 19th century; heavily muscled animals with only small amounts of fat on the carcass. The breed has since travelled widely both within Europe and farther afield.

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References

Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.

1665

1667