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Title page of Micrographia.

Micrographia is a historic book by Robert Hooke, detailing the then thirty-year-old Hooke's observations through various lenses. Published in September 1665, the first major publication of the Royal Society, it was the first scientific best-seller, inspiring a wide public interest in the new science of microscopy. It is also notable for coining the biological term cell.

Observations

Hooke most famously describes a fly's eye and a plant cell (where he coined that term because plant cells, which are walled, reminded him of a cells in a honeycomb [1]). Known for its spectacular copperplate engravings of the miniature world, particularly its fold-out plates of insects, the text itself reinforces the tremendous power of the new microscope. The plates of insects fold out to be larger than the large folio itself, the engraving of the louse in particular folding out to four times the size of the book. Although the book is best known for demonstrating the power of the microscope, Micrographia also describes distant planetary bodies, the wave theory of light, the organic origin of fossils, and other philosophical and scientific interests of its author.

Methods

In 2008, Janice Neri, a professor of art history and visual culture, studied Hooke's artistic influences and processes with the help of some newly rediscovered notes and drawings [2] that appear to show some of his work leading up to Micrographia. She observes, "Hooke's use of the term "schema" to identify his plates indicates that he approached his images in a diagrammatic manner and implies the study or visual dissection of the objects portrayed." Identifying Hooke's schema as 'organization tools,' she emphasizes: [3]

Hooke built up his images from numerous observations made from multiple vantage points, under varying lighting conditions, and with lenses of differing powers. Similarly his specimens required a great deal of manipulation and preparation in order to make them visible through the microscope.

—Janice Neri, 2008

Hooke also required strategies for ensuring his readers knew these were images of the microscopic realm, an observation at least one observer failed to grasp from images Neri found in the newly discovered notebook. Hooke used both textual and visual reminders. For example: "all of Micrographia's observations contain a phrase such as 'being look'd upon with a Microscope ... by always italicizing the new word 'microscope,' Hooke emphasized the instrument's presence at the scene of disciplined seeing." [4] Additionally: "Hooke often enclosed the objects he presented within a round frame, thus offering viewers an evocation of the experience of looking through the lens of a microscope." [3]

Publication

Published under the aegis of The Royal Society, the popularity of the book helped further the society's image and mission of being "the" scientifically progressive organization of London. Micrographia also focused attention on the miniature world, capturing the public's imagination in a radically new way. This impact is illustrated by Samuel Pepys' reaction upon completing the tome: "the most ingenious book that I ever read in my life."

Hooke also selected several objects of human origin; among these objects were the jagged edge of a honed razor and the point of a needle, seeming blunt under the microscope. His goal may well have been as a way to contrast the flawed products of mankind with the perfection of nature (and hence, in the spirit of the times, of biblical creation).[5]

Bibliography

  • Robert Hooke. "Micrographia: or, Some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses". London: J. Martyn and J. Allestry, 1665. (first edition).

References

  1. ^ "... I could exceedingly plainly perceive it to be all perforated and porous, much like a Honey-comb, but that the pores of it were not regular [..] these pores, or cells, [..] were indeed the first microscopical pores I ever saw, and perhaps, that were ever seen, for I had not met with any Writer or Person, that had made any mention of them before this. . ." – Hooke describing his observations on a thin slice of cork. Robert Hooke
  2. ^ Sample, Ian (8 February 2006). "Eureka! Lost manuscript found in cupboard". http://www.theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Neri, Janice (2008). "Between Observation and Image: Representations of Insects in Robert Hooke's Micrographia". In O'Malley, Therese; Meyers, Amy R. W. The Art of Natural History. National Gallery of Art. pp. 83–107. ISBN 978-0-300-16024-6. 
  4. ^ Dennis, Michael Aaron (1989). "Graphic Understanding: Instruments and interpretation in Robert Hooke's Micrographia". Science in Context 3 (2): 309–364. doi:10.1017/s0269889700000855. 
  5. ^ Fara P (June 2009). "A microscopic reality tale". Nature 459 (4 June 2009): 642–644. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..642F. doi:10.1038/459642a. PMID 19494897. 

External links

1893 text

“Micrographia: or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by Magnifying Glasses. London, 1665,” a very remarkable work with elaborate plates, some of which have been used for lecture illustrations almost to our own day. On November 23rd, 1664, the President of the Royal Society was “desired to sign a licence for printing of Mr. Hooke’s microscopical book.” At this time the book was mostly printed, but it was delayed, much to Hooke’s disgust, by the examination of several Fellows of the Society. In spite of this examination the council were anxious that the author should make it clear that he alone was responsible for any theory put forward, and they gave him notice to that effect. Hooke made this clear in his dedication (see Birch’s “History,” vol. i., pp. 490-491)


This text comes from a footnote on a diary entry in the 1893 edition edited by Henry B. Wheatley.

2 Annotations

Michael Robinson  •  Link

Hooke, Robert, 1635-1703.
Micrographia: or Some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses. With observations and inquiries thereupon. By R. Hooke, Fellow of the Royal Society.
London : printed by Jo. Martyn, and Ja. Allestry, printers to the Royal Society, and are to be sold at their shop at the Bell in S. Paul’s Church-yard, MDCLXV. [1665]
[36], 246, [10] p., I-XV, XVII-XXXVIII leaves of plates (some folded) ;
2⁰. Title page in red and black with a preliminary order to print and ten final contents leaves.
Wing (CD-ROM, 1996), H2620

Pepys' copy now PL 2116. A full description of the binding was published in Howard Nixon's catalog of the bindings in the Pepys' Library. L&M note "Pepys later had it embellished with an index and marginal notes in the hand of an amanuensis."

The edition was reprinted in 1667.

Michael Robinson  •  Link

National Library of Medicine (US) copy viewable with 'Turning the Pages' software; alas the plates larger than a single sheet have not been unfolded.

http://archive.nlm.nih.gov/proj/ttp/books.htm

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References

Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.

1665