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Ascension Day is commemorated as the day, forty days after the Resurrection when Jesus ascended into heaven - in front of his disciples - as recorded in Acts 1, Luke 24, Mark 16. Jesus left the disciples promising to send them a helper, which arrived on Pentecost (10 days later) - the Holy Spirit.
Ascension Day has long being a holy day and is still a public holiday in some Catholic Christian countries, but not most Protestant ones.
Observance was banned in the Commonwealth period, being restored with the introduction of the new Book of Common Prayer of 1662, thus the 1663 observance was the first since the 1640s. Observance of Ascension Day dates from the 4th century.