By Thomas Hobbes:
By Thomas Hobbes:
A Brief Life of Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 by John Aubrey see...
"...The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) is best known for his political thought, and deservedly so. His vision of the world is strikingly original and still relevant to contemporary politics. His main concern is the problem of social and political order: how human beings can live together in peace and avoid the danger and fear of civil conflict. He poses stark alternatives: we should give our obedience to an unaccountable sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide every social and political issue)...."
For more go 'ere. Life and Times
Two Intellectual Influences
Ethics and Human Nature
Materialism Versus Self-Knowledge
The Poverty of Human Judgment and our Need for Science
The Natural Condition of Mankind
The Laws of Nature and the Social Contract
Why Should we Obey the Sovereign?
Life Under the Sovereign
References and Further Reading
a brief life of Thomas Hobbes by John Aubrey
Unmentioned. Leviathan; He upset many of the Clergy , Anglicans and Roman Catholicks.
Book can be got for under 10 $ and well well digesting.
4 parts. I Of Man [nature] ,
II of Common-wealth,
III of Christianity and Common-wealth,
IV of Kingdom of Darknesse.
Thomas Hobbes, a man of much learning, more thinking, and not a little knowledge of the world, was one of the most celebrated and admired authors of his age. His style is incomparably better than that of any other writer in the reign of Charles I. and was, for its uncommon strength and purity, scarcely equalled in the succeeding reign. He has, in translation, done Thucydides as much justice as he has done injury to Homer: but he looked upon himself as born for much greater things than treading in the footsteps of his predecessors. He was for striking out new paths in science, government, and religion; and for removing the landmarks of former ages. His ethics have a strong tendency to corrupt our morals, and his politics to destroy that liberty which is the birthright of every human creature. He is commonly represented as a sceptic in religion, and a dogmatist in philosophy, but he was a dogmatist in both. The main principles of his "Leviathan" are as little founded in moral or evangelical truth, as the rules he laid down for squaring the circle are in the mathematical demonstration. His book on human Nature is esteemed the best of his works. Ob. 4 Dec. 1679, Æt. 92.
---A Biographical History of England. J. Granger, 1775.
HOBBES, (Thomas) was born at Malmesbury in Wiltshire in 1588, and educated at Magdalenhall, Oxford. In 1608 he was engaged by the earl of Devonshire, as tutor to lord William Cavendish, with whom he made the tour of Europe. On the death of his patron and pupil, he became employed in the same character by a young gentleman; but the countess dowager of Devonshire recalled him to undertake the education of the young earl; a trust which he discharged with great fidelity. In 1628 he published an English translation of Thucydides, and reprinted it in 1634. The same year he accompanied the earl upon his travels, and at Pisa contracted an intimacy with Galileo. In 1637 he returned with his pupil to England, and, through the recommendation of Sir Charles Cavendish, afterwards duke of Newcastle, he was appointed mathematical tutor to the prince of Wales, afterwards Charles II. In 1650 appeared in English, his Treatise on Human Nature, and another De Corpore Politico, or The Elements of the Law. This latter piece was presented to Gassendus, and read by him a few months before his death; who is said to have kissed it, and then to have given his opinion of it in the following words :— "This treatise is indeed small in bulk, but, in my judgment, the very marrow of science." In 1651 he published his religious, political, and moral principles, in a complete system, which he called "The Leviathan," and caused a copy of it to be presented to the king; but his Majesty was dissuaded from giving it any countenance. In his 88th year, he published a translation, in English verse, of the whole Iliad and Odyssey of Homer: but his poetry was below mediocrity; though he had before given some tokens of a poetic turn, in a Latin poem, entitled De Mirabilitus Pecci, or The Wonders of the Peak. He engaged in a dispute with Dr. Wallis, on the subject of Mathematics, but gained no honour in the contest. On the Restoration of the king he obtained a pension; but in 1666 the parliament passed a censure on his writings, at which he was exceedingly alarmed. There have been few persons whose writings have had a more pernicious influence, in spreading irreligion and infidelity than those of Hobbes; and yet none of his pieces are directly levelled against revealed religion.—His Leviathan, by which he is now chiefly known, tends not only to subvert the authority of scripture, but to destroy God's moral government of the world: it cofounds the natural difference of good and evil, virtue and vice; it destroys the best principles of the human nature; and, instead of that innate benevolence and social disposition which should unite men together, supposes all men to be naturally in a state of war with one another. ...
... The earl of Devonshire remained his constant patron, and Hobbes continued in the family till his death, which happened in 1679, When his physician assured him there were no hopes of a recovery, he said, "Then I am glad to find a loop-hole to creep out of the world at." It is wonderful to relate, that though he was a sceptic, he had great apprehensions of dying, and could not bear to be left alone for fear of apparitions, though in his writings he ridicules all ideas of immaterial beings,
---Eccentric biography. 1801.
HOBBES, THOMAS (1588-1679), philosopher; educated at Malmesbury and Magdalen Hall, Oxford; B.A., 1608; twenty years tutor and secretary to William Cavendish, afterwards second Earl of Devonshire, and his son; his translation of Thucydides published, 1629; at Paris with Sir Gervase Clifton's son, 1629-31; visiting Italy and Paris, 1634, met Galileo, Gassendi, and Mersenne; said to have been Bacon's amanuensis; intimate with Harvey, Ben Jonson, Cowley, and Sidney Godolphin (1610-1643); resided at Paris, 1641-52; transmitted anonymous objections to Descartes's positions, published his 'Leviathan'(1651), and acted as mathematical tutor to Charles II; on his return to England submitted to council of state; saw much of Harvey and Selden; engaged in controversies with Bramhall in defence of his religion and philosophy, and with Seth Ward, Boyle, and John Wallis, on mathematical questions, the last exposing many of his blunders; received pension from Charles II, and was protected by him against Clarendon and the church party; his 'Behemoth' suppressed; left London, 1675; wrote autobiography in Latin verse at eighty-four and completed translation of Homer at eighty-six; buried in Hault Hucknall church. In metaphysics a thoroughgoing nominalist; his political philosophy (chiefly in 'Leviathan'), arguing that the body politic has been formed as the only alternative to a natural state of war, was attacked by Sir Robert Filmer, but mentioned with respect in Harrington's 'Oceana.' It influenced Spinoza, Leibnitz, and Rousseau, and was revived in England by the utilitarians. The chief critics of his metaphysical and ethical writings were Clarendon, Tenison, the Cambridge Platonists, and Samuel Clarke. The standard edition of his works is that of Sir W. Molesworth (1839-45). His works include, besides those mentioned, 'De Cive' (1642; English, 1651), 'Human Nature' (1650), 'De Corpore Politico' (originally 'Elements of Law '), 1680, ' De Homine' (1658), 'Quadrutura Circuli,' and other geometrical treatises, and 'Behemoth, or the Long Parliament' (edited by Dr. Ferdinand Tonnies, 1889).
---Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome. S. Lee, 1906.
Chart showing the number of references in each month of the diary’s entries.